Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design

Abolghasem Shahbazi, Interim Chairperson

The objectives of the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design are to meet its responsibilities to society by training students as professional agriculturists, natural resources specialists, landscape architects, agricultural and biosystems engineers and environmentalists who can identify, analyze, and solve the problems of today, as well as new problems that may arise in the future. Realizing the dynamic and ever-changing nature of modern society, the Department seeks to provide its students with the tools of analysis as well as facilities for applying the natural, physical, and social sciences to thinking processes that will enable them to meet the present and future needs in managing their environment.


Agricultural and Environmental Systems – Bachelor of Science
Concentrations:  Urban & Community Horticulture (Curriculum Guide)
                     Sustainable Land Management (Curriculum Guide)
                     Environmental Studies (Curriculum Guide)
Biological Engineering – Bachelor of Science (Curriculum Guide)
Landscape Architecture – Bachelor of Science (Curriculum Guide)

Interdisciplinary certificate programs are offered to students enrolled in Bachelor of Science programs at the University. Areas of specialization include Biotechnology (18 credit hours), Waste Management (18 to 20 credits hours) and Agricultural and Natural Resources Information Science (18 credit hours).

The admission of students to the undergraduate degree programs and qualification for the Bachelor of Science degree in the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design are based upon the general admission and graduation requirements of the University. For admission to Biological Engineering  see respective handbooks and program requirements elsewhere in this catalog.

Majors in the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design must complete a minimum of 120 semester hours of University courses. Included in the 120 hours are thirty hours in a major elective depending on the degree program. A minimum grade of “C” may be required for some major courses. A Waste Management Certificate is awarded with the Bachelor of Science degree to students who complete a minimum of 18 credit hours of courses identified as waste management core courses. There is also a biotechnology certificate for students who meet the requirements.

The Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design provides professional education for a wide range of career opportunities. Graduates of the program work in such industrial areas as land-use planning, environmental control, natural resources, urban reclamation and restoration of open spaces, urban and community agriculture, waste management, soil and water quality, and environmental remediation and policy analysis, general plant protection, greenhouse production, landscape contracting, nursery/garden center management, landscape architecture and regional and urban planning. Career opportunities also include work with federal, state, and local government agencies involved in regulation, resource management, and policy development. Students have found employment with consulting firms involved in solving environmental and production problems, as well as working as  licensed landscape architects providing professional design consultations. The Department also prepares students for graduate school to pursue degrees in the environmental science, soil science, horticultural and related sciences, landscape architecture and biological engineering.

Thomas C. Crawford, Program Coordinator

When majoring in landscape architecture, you will learn how to blend science, engineering, and artistic expression to
develop sustainable, livable, and inspiring environments. Our graduates are part of a community of visionary, creative, and influential professionals, who are making a positive impact on important global issues, including climate change, impending food shortages, and decreasing biodiversity.

Landscape architecture is  everywhere around  us  from  green  infrastructure to  shopping areas,  to  our  homes,  to communities, to parks, to transportation, to gardens, to campus and basically everywhere. Landscape architecture is the design, planning, research and management of our landscapes.


The Landscape Architecture Program at North Carolina A&T State University is rooted in the University’s unique legacy, which includes its history as the largest publicly funded Historically Black College or University within the State of North Carolina, as well as home to the A&T four who helped spark the civil rights movement in the south. The Program has produced more African American landscape architects than any other accredited degree program. As such, the A&T Landscape Architecture Program has been instrumental in supporting diversity within the profession. This social and geographical context provides a unique framework for studying landscape architecture, which is carried forward in service-based learning projects that often focus on underrepresented populations of the rural, urban, and suburban south.


The Landscape Architecture Program at North Carolina A&T State University prepares a diverse student body to become leaders within the field of landscape architecture. Students are instilled with the theoretical, technical, and life skills necessary to address the complex and continually changing ecological and social challenges of the 21st century associated with the design, conservation, and management of landscapes. Educational emphasis is placed on developing creative and critical thinking skills, high moral character and ethical behavior, exposure to various geographies and cultures, and an independence of mind and freedom of spirit.


  1. Support a strong undergraduate program focusing on the development of sound thinking skills, personal vision, and high moral character and ethical behavior through exposure to the broad range of landscape architecture activities and technical skills.
  2. Recruit, retain and graduate high-caliber students in an effort to increase the diversity of leaders within the field of landscape architecture.
  3. Foster well-respected faculty within the University and broader academic setting, who have the support network and skills necessary to succeed in teaching, research, community service, and/or creative works.
  4. Offer high quality facilities, technology, travel, and internship opportunities, as a means to help ensure student success.
  5. Make positive contributions to the broader social and ecological context, and develop a respected visible reputation, through community service based research and teaching activities.

Degree Offered

North Carolina A&T State University offers a four year nationally recognized accredited program in landscape architecture resulting in a Bachelor of Science Degree in Landscape Architecture.
Admission and Degree Program Requirements

Admission of students to the undergraduate degree programs in the Landscape Architecture Program is based upon the general admission requirements of the University. Students majoring in Landscape Architecture must complete 120 semester hours of University courses. Students must earn an average grade of “C” in all landscape architecture courses in order to meet the major field requirements for graduation. It is a university requirement that students complete 6 hours of written communication, 6 hours of mathematical, logical, and analytical reasoning, 7 hours of scientific reasoning, 6 hours of social/behavioral sciences, 6 hours of humanities/fine arts, and 2 hours of student success. Of the 12 total hours in social/behavioral sciences and humanities/fine arts, at least 3 hours must be completed in African-American studies courses and 3 hours in global studies courses. During summer vacations, internships are strongly recommended. During matriculation through the degree program, hands-on activities of any kind related to the field of landscape architecture is strongly recommended.

The program is accredited by the Landscape Architectural Accreditation Board (LAAB). In order for program graduates to sit for the licensure examination in all 50 states, they must have graduated from an accredited institution. The landscape architecture program has been accredited by the LAAB since 1993. 
Community Service Projects

Because this program is rooted in the unique legacy of North Carolina A&T State University, we are committed to community service design and planning projects that address the underserved communities of North Carolina.

Field Study

Landscape architects design, plan, manage, and research areas from small intimate spaces to large complex regions. The landscape architecture program student population varies greatly in its socio-economic backgrounds. It is essential that the landscape architecture students taste as much of the outdoor world as possible to experience the real-life needs of all parts of society. Experiential learning opportunities, as a means to ensure student success in the classroom and in the workforce, are necessary. Therefore, visitation to the beach, the mountains, a professional landscape architecture office, a planning or city office, presentations in front of a “client,” or  travel to a diverse range of landscape architecture project sites such as parks, plazas, urban districts, campuses, etc. are all part of the experiential learning for landscape architects.

Every spring the sophomore class leaves Greensboro by train and travels to Boston and from there we take a ten day trip back to Greensboro. The tour starts in Boston then to New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington DC. The class visits notable landscapes, offices and graduate schools of landscape architecture.

Career Opportunities

Students who successfully complete the program in Landscape Architecture are prepared for careers as landscape designers or consultants, environmental planners, golf course designers, community development, urban planning and landscape supervisors.  Working with state and local government as city planners and federal governmental such as working with the National Park Service or Forestry Service are also careers for landscape Architects. While the majority of landscape architects work for landscape architecture services and firms, a full 20 percent of people in the profession are self-employed.

Program Requirements

Students majoring in Landscape Architecture must complete 120 semester hours of University courses. Students must earn an average grade of “C” in all landscape architecture courses in order to meet the major field requirements for graduation.

Abolghasem Shahbazi, Program Director

The mission of the Biological Engineering program is to provide its students with a quality Biological Engineering education and to satisfy the educational and technical needs of society at local, national and international levels.


Our graduates will:

  1. Demonstrate the ability to work productively and ethically as Biological Engineers or to pursue graduate education,
  2. Have the skills to actively lead or participate on mult-idisciplinary teams,
  3. Be active in professional societies, engage in continuing education, and progress towards professional registration,
  4. Contribute to society and to the diversity of the workforce in their company and in their profession by actively recruiting and mentoring for these organizations.


The Biological Engineering major Bioprocess Engineering Option must complete 120 credit hours following the approved curriculum and the Natural Resources Engineering Option must complete 120 credit hours following the approved curriculum. Majors must also satisfy all University and College of Engineering requirements.


The undergraduate program in Biological Engineering, leading to the Bachelor of Science in Biological Engineering (BSBE) degree, is accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (EAC-ABET). Biological Engineering at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University was the first to obtain national accedditation at a Historically Black University in the USA.

A degree in this field prepares students for careers in engineering design, management, research, consulting, sales, teaching, product development, governmental agencies (federal and state), industries and foreign services.


BIOE 114. Home and Farm Maintenance Credit 3(1-4)
This course provides instruction in the selection, sharpening, care and correct use of shop tools and equipment; woodworking and simple carpentry; simple electrical repairs; sheet metal work; electric arc and oxyacetylene welding; pipe fitting and simple plumbing repairs. (F;S)

BIOE 204. Principles and Applications of Land Surveying Credit 3 (1-4)
This course covers basic surveying knowledge, theories and practices of plane and topographic surveying, measurements (accuracy and errors), differential and profile leveling, stadia traverse, and an introduction to site planning and development. The integration of Global Positioning Systems along with field layout, orientation, land leveling and water management (Irrigation and Drainage) will be emphasized, horizontal and vertical roadway layout will also be discussed. Prerequisites: MATH 102 or 110 or 131(F;S;S)

BIOE 216. Geographic Information Systems Credit 3(1-4)
This course introduces Geographic Information System (GIS) concepts and applications. GIS theory is presented, and hands-on exercises are used to demonstrate the application and use of GIS in agriculture, arts and sciences, health, political sciences, engineering, technology, and other disciplines. (F;S)

BIOE 330. Engineering Systems Analysis and Design Credit 4(2-4)
This course introduces the analysis and the design of engineering systems. Concepts, methods, and procedures associated with the engineering design process are studied. Specific topics include project management; customer need identification; team behavior; concept generation and evaluation; embodiment design; modeling and simulation; finite element analysis software; material selection; engineering statistics; and legal and ethical issues in design. Prerequisites: CAAE 332 or MEEN 336 or equivalent. (F;S) 

BIOE 360. General Hydrology Credit 3(2-2)
This course is an introduction to the study of surface and subsurface hydrology. Topics include hydrologic cycle, rainfall-runoff relationships, precipitation measurements and hydrographs, unit hydrograph analysis, flood routing, planning and design of runoff/detention systems, and computer applications in hydrology. Prerequisites: CAAE 362 or MEEN416. (F;S;S)

BIOE 400. Soil and Water Engineering Credit 3(2-2)
This course emphasizes the application of hydraulics, hydrology, saturated flow, engineering principles, and soil and plant Properties in the analysis and design of soil and water management systems. Topics include water quality, precipitation, overland flow and erosion, states of flow, equation of flow, irrigation and drainage designs, and pipe flow. Additional discussions will include ways to improve conservation engineering commonly used; as well as the transfer of technology to agriculture, engineering and other related disciplines. Prerequisite: CAAE 364 or equivalent. (F;S;S)

BIOE 404. Structures and the Environment Credit 3(1-4)
This course covers the fundamentals of timber-framed building design and  construction. Topics include, selection of materials, design of foundations, beams and columns, reinforced concrete, and environmental considerations, such as temperature, humidity, condensation, and ventilation. Prerequisite: CAAE 332 or MEEN 336 or equivalent. (F;S;S)

BIOE 415. Water Management and Conservation I Credit 3(3-0)
The primary purpose of the course is to examine basic concepts and practices dealing with water issues, agricultural pollutants, irrigation and drainage water conservation methods, and design and evaluation of water management systems at the field and water shed scale. This course will review basic principles of hydrology, erosion, saturated and unsaturated flow, soil-water-air-plant relationships, land leveling and development. Prerequisites: SLMG 200 or equivalent and Senior standing in Biological Engineering. (F;S;S)

BIOE 422. Introduction to Bioprocess Engineering Credit 3(3-0)
This course covers the engineering concepts for biological conversion of raw materials to food, pharmaceuticals, fuels, and chemicals. Emphasis is placed on energy balance, material balance, fluid flow and mixing, heat and mass transfer, bioreaction kinetics, design, analysis, instrumentation, and control of bioreactors. Prerequisites: BIOE 330 or equivalent. (F;S;S)

BIOE 423. Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Systems Credit 3(2-2)
This course discusses the production, utilization, and design of renewable energy systems. Specific topics include: heat transfer, heat exchangers, solar (thermal and photovoltaic) energy, biogas, biomass, bioethanol, gasification and pyrolysis, energy analysis, sustainability, air pollution and ethics. Prerequisite: MEEN 441 or CHEN 312. (F;S;S)

BIOE 424. Water Resources Engineering Credit 3(2-2)
This course emphasizes the analysis and design of water resources systems. Topics include water resources planning and development, hydraulic structures, open channel flow, introduction to aquifer analysis and contamination, well development, pumps and pumping, pipe flow, water supply quantity and quality, best management practice, water laws, watershed models (SWAT) and flood plain models (HEC-RAS). Prerequisite: CAAE 364 or equivalent, or BIOE 400. (F;S;S)

BIOE 425. Instrumentation for Biological  Systems Credits 3(1-4)
Basic concepts of instrumentation for monitoring of biological systems will be studied. Specific topics include: selection and use of sensors and data acquisition systems for measuring various parameters of biological systems (temperature, pressure, flow and pH value) monitoring and control of bioreactors, analytic instruments for measuring cells and biomolecules (light and fluorescent microscopes, GC-MS, HPLC and elemental analyzer) and analysis of experimental data. Prerequisites: BIOE 330. (F;S;S)

BIOE 426. Food Engineering (Formerly BIOE 522) Credit 2(2-2)
The general engineering principles of solids, fluids, and process equipment are discussed. Topics include energy, heat, enthalpy, pyschrometrics, heat and mass transfer, drying and refrigeration of food products. Prerequisite: CHEM 107. (F;S;S)

BIOE 432. Physical  and Engineering Properties of Soil Credit 3(2-2)
This course addresses fundamental principles of laws which govern the movement or behavior of water and air in soils. The impact of soil physical and biological properties on drainage and irrigation design are discussed. Discussion will also include stream restoration, compaction and mechanics of soil materials. Prerequisite: CAAE 364 or equivalent. (F;S;S)

BIOE 440. Engineering Properties of Biological Materials Credit 3(2-2)
This course covers engineering properties of plant and animal materials. Specific topics include structure and composition of plant and animal materials, elastic and viscoelastic properties, food rheology and thermal properties, aerodynamic and hydrodynamic properties, and electromagnetic properties. Prerequisites: BIOL 101 or equivalent; CAAE 332 or and MEEN 336 or equivalent. (F;S;S)

BIOE 485. Selected topics in Biological Engineering (formerly BIOE 505) Credit 3(3-0)
An in-depth lecture course covering several advanced topics in Biological Engineering. Topics are selected to match student interest and faculty expertise. A specific course description will be made available at the time such a course is offered. Prerequisite: Senior standing in Biological Engineering. (F;S;S)

BIOE 490. Independent Study in Biological Engineering (formerly BIOE 510) Credit 1-3(0-6)
An independent study course is completed on a single topic in Biological Engineering/Topics are selected to fit the mutual interests of students and faculty advisor. The study includes the design of an apparatus, a process, or a procedure. Final written report and an oral presentation of the work are required. Prerequisites: Permission of Instructor. (F;S;S)

BIOE 495. Engineering Design I (formerly BIOE 501) Credit 1(1-0)
In this course, each student identifies a design project, defines the problem, collects all required resources and databases and outline the work plan. This project integrates design concepts from previous courses. Prerequisite: BIOE 330. (F;S;S)

BIOE 496. Engineering Design II (formerly BIOE 502) Credit 2(2-0)
In this course students complete the work plan established in BIOE 501. Prerequisite: BIOE 501. (F;S;S)

Concentration: Environmental Studies

ENVS 201. The Earth – Man’s Environment Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a study of the earth’s system as related to atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The interrelationship of humans with the earth’s environment as revealed in the modification of natural processes will also be examined. Prerequisite: Consent of the instructor. (F;S;SS)

ENVS 209. Physical Geology Credit 3(2-2)
This course deals with geological principles; nature, composition and distribution of earth materials; processes responsible for the formation and modification of landscapes; rock and mineral identification; utilization of geographic processes; resource conservation; application of geologic concepts to agricultural, engineering and environmental problems. Prerequisites: CHEM 101 or consent of the instructor. (S)

ENVS 210. Introduction to Environmental Science Credit 3(3-0)
This course gives students a basic understanding of environmental science and the concept of sustainability. It also presents examples showing the development of solutions to complex environmental issues. Prerequisites: Consent of the instructor. (F;S;SS)

ENVS 230. Weather and Climate Credit 3(3-0)  
This course examines world patterns of climate types and climate change, weather systems, atmospheric circulation, Tropical storms, tornados, hurricanes. It surveys the impacts of weather and climate on landforms and applications to Problems in engineering, military science and planning for agricultural, urban and regional development projects Prerequisites: Sophomore standing and consent of the instructor. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing and consent of the instructor. (F)

ENVS 308. Independent Work in Environmental Studies Credit 3(1-4)
Supervised independent research in environmental studies. Prerequisite: Junior standing and consent of the instructor. (S;SS1)

ENVS 344. Environmental Sustainability Credit 3(2-2)
This class covers environement sustainability issues such as sustainable energy, climate change, sustanianable water supply, waste reduction and recyclying. (F;S;SS)

ENVS 410. Sustainable Earth Credit 3(3-0)
The topics addressed in this course include global climate change, ocean habitat and productivity, sustainable food production, the available of land, natural resources, and safe and pure drinking water. Students will focus on environmental issues, and they will examine present options with a perspective of how we may influence or be influenced by these issues in the future. Prerequisites: Consent of the instructor. (F;S;SS)

ENVS 420. Environmental Studies Credit 3(3-0)
The course provides a multidisciplinary approach to several global, regional, and local environmental issues. These issues will be examined from a variety of perspectives; scientific, technical, social, political, economic, legal and ethical. A combination of in-class and out-of-class activities will provide the basis for research projects. Prerequisites: Consent of the instructor. (F;S;SS)

ENVS 424. Geomorphology Credit 3(2-2)
This course examines various land forms and their evolution – the naturally evolved surface features of the Earth’s crust and the processes responsible for their evaluation, their relations to man’s activities and as the foundation for understanding the environment. Prerequisites: ENVS 209. (F;S;SS)

Advanced Undergraduate and Graduate

ENVS 416. Natural Resource Conservation Credit 3(3-0) 
This class covers uncontrolled use of natural resources, increased urbanization, unplanned growth and general deterioration of the man-made and natural environments. Prerequisite: Senior standing and consent of the instructor. (F)

ENVS 421. Environmental Challenges and Issues Credit 3(3-0)
Students will be involved case studies in which small groups of students will represent government or interest groups in a town meeting that will discuss controversial environmental issues. Students will also participate in field trips that will provide an understanding of the complexities of environmental issues. Students will present a formal report. Prerequisites: Senior/Graduate Standing. (F;S;SS)

ENVS 422. Environmental Sanitation and Waste Management Credit 3(2-2)
This course is the study of traditional and innovative methods of managing with handling liquid, solid and other forms of waste products in urban and rural environments. Prerequisites: Senior standing and consent of the instructor. (F;S;SS)

ENVS 444. Problem Solving in Environmental Studies Credit 3(3-0)
Supervised independent field and/or laboratory research in environmental studies. Prerequisites: Senior standing and consent of the instructor. (S)

ENVS 466. Earth System Science Credit 3(3-0)
This course is the study of the earth as a “system” with emphasis on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere interactions as related to global change and human impact. Prerequisites: Senior standing and consent of the instructor. (F)

ENVS 699. Environmental Problems Credit 3(3-0)
This course covers multidisciplinary examination of environmental problems and application of innovative techniques of analysis to environmental problems. Team taught by environmental faculty. Prerequisites: Senior standing and consent of the instructor. (S)

Concentration: Urban & Community Horticulture

HORT 210. The Science of Plants Credit 3(3-0)
This course focuses on the fundamental biological characteristics, and principles of growth and development of crop plants. Prerequisites: NARS 110. (F;S;SS)

HORT 301. Disease Management Strategies in Urban and Community Horticulture Credit 3(2-2)
This course covers plant pathology issues in urban and community horticulture: main diseases and pests, and how to take into account specific conditions of community and urban environment, particularly how to address those issues in organic production conditions, under agriculture structures or in common spaces. (S)

HORT 327. Basic Floral Design and Edible Arrangements (formerly HORT 527) Credit 3(2-2)
This course covers the history and principles of floral design, with special attention to design principles, such as Balance, harmony, color, and line movement. The course includes edible arrangements using fruits and vegetables. Requires and includes practice of different techniques of flower and edible arrangement (Lab fee). (F;S;SS;DEMAND)

HORT 330. Plant Nutrition Credit 3(3-0)
This course describes basic principles of plant nutrition, importance of nutrients for plant growth and how to build a plant nutrition program that is responsive to optimum productivity and minimal environmental pollution. Prerequisite: NARS 110, SLMG 200. (F;S;SS)

HORT 334. Plant Propagation Credit 3(2-2)
This course is the study of the types, construction, and management of propagation structures; it covers the fundamental principles of propagation by seed, and of vegetable propagation. Prerequisite: NARS 110. (F;S;SS)

HORT 350. Factors affecting Urban and Community Horticulture Credit 3(3-0)
This course covers important environmental factors, waste recycling, and socio-economical considerations that influence production of edible plants in urban and in community gardens. Prerequisite: NARS 110. (F;S)

HORT 351. Practice in Sustainable Horticulture Credit 2(0-2)
This course offers faculty-supervised practical hands-on experience for students on projects in the area of Sustainable Urban and Community Horticulture, such as small-scale farms and community horticulture gardens. (S)

HORT 400. Advanced Techniques for Horticultural Crop Improvement I Credit 3(2-2)
This course studies principles and techniques of plant cell, tissue and organ culture, embryogenesis and organogenesis, Breeding and genetic transformation, and their applications in horticultural crop improvement. Prerequisites: NARS 110, HORT 334. (F;S;SS)

HORT 402. Grapes and Small Fruits (formerly HORT 602) Credit 3(2-2)
This course covers principles and production practices of the various varieties of grapes and small fruits produced in North Carolina. Prerequisite: NARS 110. (F;S)

HORT 403. Specialty Crops (formerly HORT 603) Credit 3(2-2)
This course will cover production aspects of some specialized crops, like Mushrooms, Herbs and Medicinal Plants. Prerequisite: NARS 110. (F;S)

HORT 410. Season Extension in Sustainable Production (formerly HORT 610) Credit 2(2-0)
This course covers different options for producing vegetables, small fruits or other edible plants requiring limited space in a rural environment. From the production under protected conditions to season extension including all the different possibilities offered to growers. Prerequisite: NARS 110. (F;S)

HORT 422. Integrated Pest Management Systems (formerly HORT 612) Credit 3(2-3)
This course provides basic principles and skills or the management of pest of crops, greenhouse and ornamental plants, and those attacking man and his domesticated animals. (F;S;SS)

HORT 420. Vegetable Production for Small Scale Production (Formerly HORT 620) Credit 3(3-0)
This course provides a comprehensive study of vegetable crops that are adapted to small scale production. It covers Production practices, quality and nutritional characteristics, main propagation techniques, post-harvesting handling and storage, and some marketing aspects of the crops and production systems studies. Prerequisites: NARS 110, HORT 334, or permission of instructor. (S)

HORT 485. Special Topics in Horticulture Credit 3(3-0)
This course will teach a specific topic in horticulture for advanced undergraduate students. Prerequisites: NARS 110, HORT 334. (F;S;SS)

(Sustainable Land Management)

SLMG 200. Soil Science Credit 4(3-2)
Study of soil as a natural resource, soil formation, soil properties, and how soil properties influence soil function in land-use systems.This course examines the fundamental nature and properties of soils, soil genesis, and classification and land use will be covered. (F)

SLMG 300. Soil and Soil Management Credit 3(3-0)
Topics in soil fertility, chemistry, physics and biology. Discussion of how land management techniques affect Soil properties, soil function, soil quality, and other environmental components. (F)

SLMG 301. Soils and Soil Management Laboratory Credit 2(0-4)
A laboratory course that focuses on the measurement of soil physical, chemical and biological properties of soil and their practical applications in land-use systems. (F)

SLMG 350. Land and Water Conservation Management Credit 3(3-0)
Major topics covered are climate change, precipitation patterns and soil erosion, soil and water conservation Techniques, restoration of eroded and degraded soils, reclamation of mine spoils, formation and reclamation of saline and sodic conditions, and water conservation techniques for urban and rural lands. (S)

SLMG 400. Environmental Quality Assessment Credit 4(2-4)
Discussion of how urban, agricultural, and forestry land techniques affect environmental quality, methods of Contaminant assessment and abatement, and contaminant remediation in soil, water and air. (F)

SLMG 450. Sustainable Land-Use Systems Credit 3(3-0)
Discussion of past and present agronomic, horticultural and forestry production systems, how they need to Evolve to adapt to current climatic conditions, to mitigate greenhouse emissions, and to reduce excessive Soil erosion and land degradation rates. (S)

SLSC 517. Soil Fertility Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines that following: the general principles of soil fertility; influence of chemical, physical and microbiological properties of soils on crop production; application of fertility principles in cropping programs; and limited treatment of impact of agricultural pollutants on the environment. Prerequisite: SLSC 338, CHEM 101 or consent of instructor. (DEMAND)

Advanced Undergraduate and Graduate

SLSC 621. Soil Microbiology Credit 4(2-4)
A study of soil micro and macro organisms and their role in elemental cycles, environmental pollution remediation and crop yields. Also, deals with the rhizosphere ecology and processes. Organic matter accumulation and carbon sequestration in soils. (DEMAND)

SLSC 632. Soil Physics Credit 4(2-4)
This course is a study of fundamental physical principles and laws which govern the behavior of soils. Physical constitution of soil water, and soil air and the relationship of soil physical conditions to plant growth and environment will also be examined. Prerequisites: SLSC 338, CHEM 102, and MATH 113, and consent of instructor. Spring terms of even numbered years. (S)

SLSC 633. Soil Genesis, Classification and Land Use Credit 4(2-4)
Factors and processes of soil formation, grouping of soils based on their properties, soil mapping, soil interpretations for various uses and discussion of new concepts in soil taxonomy will be studied. Prerequisite: SLSC 338 or consent of instructor. (F)

SLSC 634. Soil Environmental Chemistry Credit 4(3-2)
This course is a study of the chemical properties of soil environment including interactions of solid, liquid and gaseous phases. Discussion will also include ion and pollutant interactions with soil, their retention, potential movement and the environmental impact. Additional discussion will include oxidation and reduction, soil acidity and alkalinity and their impact on waste management, resource utilization and the environment. Prerequisite: SLSC 338. (S)

SLSC 640. Wetland Management Credit 3(-0)
Designed to provide a basic understanding of the benefits that wetlands in their natural conditions offer mankind, fish and wildlife habitat, water quality improvement, flood protection, filter traps for pollutants, erosion control, natural products, recreation, and aesthetics. Primary instructional areas will include ecology, wetland systems of the southeast region, wetland law and regulations, soil conditions of wetlands, hydrology of wetlands, methodology of delineating wetlands, wetland irrigation, plant and vegetation identification, and writing environ-mental reports.


LDAR 102. Environmental Design Ethics Credit 2(2-0)
This course is designed to emphasize issues, values, and ethics in landscape architecture. Current concerns and issues involving the environment, design and social factors will be explored. A variety of ideologies within the practice of landscape architecture and their niches within the profession will be examined. (F; S;SS)

LDAR 104. Landscape Architecture History (formerly LDAR 270) Credit 3(3-0)
This history course is a study of the development of landscape architecture from antiquity to modern times, with emphasis on its relationships to allied arts and professions of designed landscapes. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 105. Landscape Architecture History II (formerly LDAR 271) Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a study of the development of landscape design during the modern and post modern eras. Topics will include the English Landscape School, the City Beautiful Movement, the Country Place Era, the International School, and contemporary landscapes and their designers. Prerequisite: LDAR 104. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 147. The Space Creation Studio (formerly LDAR 198) Credit 3(0-6)
This studio course will explore issues of basic design and design theory such as the principles and elements of visual design. Two and three dimensional aspects of form and space creation will be explored along with the development of a design language. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 148. The Imaginary Space Studio (formerly LDAR 199) Credit 3(0-6)
Students in this studio course will explore basic concept development using the principles and elements of design. The course will give students a greater understanding of space through analysis of forms, proportions, and scale. Students will investigate design theory by proposing solutions to a given problem. Prerequisite: LDAR 170. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 150. Landscape Architecture Discovery Credit 3(3-0)
This course will explore the broad field of landscape architecture. Students will be introduced to the planning and design process. The ecological and social factors of design, planning, management, and research of landscapes will be introduced with emphasis on sustainability. Also, the development of the landscape architecture lexicon will be emphasized. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 170. Landscape Architecture Drawing One Studio Credit 3(0-6)
Students enrolled in this studio course will explore the field of landscape architecture through the various visual communication techniques. Students will be exposed to traditional and digital visual graphic techniques necessary for the communication of ideas. Students will also develop three dimensional models. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 171. Landscape Architecture Drawing Two Studio Credit 3(0-6)
This studio course is designed to explore further issues of visual communication. Both traditional and digital visual media will be used to investigate more technical aspects of communication. Students will also develop more complex to three dimensional models. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 204. Plant Materials I (formerly LDAR 302) Credit 3(1-4)
This course will concentrate on the study of plant materials as used in landscape design. Emphasis is placed on major categories of herbaceous plants and woody plants as they pertain to landscape usage. Identification techniques will be introduced and used. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 205. Plant Materials II (formerly LDAR 303) Credit 3(1-4)
This course is a continuation of LDAR 204. Different plant species will be the focus of this course. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 247. The Small Private Spaces Studio (formerly LDAR 370) Credit 3(0-6)
This studio course is designed to explore further issues of design with emphasis on sustainable landscapes. Course material will emphasize ideologies about scales, context, and concept development. Small residential projects will explore creative solutions to “real” world constraints (i.e. zoning regulations, economic, environmental, social, political, etc.). The cyclic nature of the design process and its layers will also be emphasized. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 248. The Small Public Spaces Studio (formerly LDAR 371) Credit 3(0-6)
This studio course is designed to explore further issues of design with emphasis on sustainable landscapes. Course material will emphasize ideologies about scales, context, and concept development. Small public projects will explore creative solutions to “real” world constraints (i.e. zoning regulations, economic, environmental, social, political, etc.). The cyclic nature of the design process and its layers will also be emphasized. Prerequisite: LDAR 247. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 304. Designing Sustainably (formerly LDAR 230) Credit 3(3-0)
This lecture course will explore current research, technology, best practices and performance goals for the design, construction and maintenance of sustainable sites. Basic concepts of ecology, ecosystem structure and function will be explored; energy flow and material recycling emphasized. Field trips are required. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 344. Landscape Architecture Construction Materials (formerly LDAR 360) Credit 3(1-4)
This course will introduce students to various materials used in landscape construction projects. The nature, structure and/or composition of the material, its typical application in the landscape and construction techniques with emphasis on sustainable materials will be discussed. Emphasis will be placed on the use of materials in the landscape and the development of drawn construction details during the lab period. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 345. Landscape Architectural Construction Studio (formerly LDAR 460) Credit 4(0-8)
This studio course will focus on exercises and projects in site engineering with emphasis on sustainable landscapes. Prerequisites: MATH 101 and 102 or higher, PHYS 105 or higher. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 346. Landscape Architecture Materials and Equipment Studio (formerly LDAR 461) Credit 4(0-8)
This studio course will focus on lectures, exercises and projects dealing with landscape equipment, and design methods with emphasis on sustainable landscapes. Prerequisite: LDAR 460. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 347. Site Design Studio (formerly LDAR 470) Credit 4(0-8)
This is a studio course for students to develop design solutions to problems involving private, quasi-public, and public spaces with emphasis on the design process and sustainability. The student will develop programs, site analysis, concept, and presentation drawings. Prerequisite: LDAR 371. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 348. Site Planning Studio (formerly LDAR 471) Credit 4(0-8)
This studio course is a continuation of LDAR 347 addressing more complex sustainable design issues. Prerequisite: LDAR 347. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 380. Design Field Study Credit 3(0-6)
This is a course for landscape architecture students to visit and explore examples of exemplary natural systems and built landscapes. Students will study successful North Carolina or international (i.e. Ghana, England) urban projects, gardens, parks, and residential communities, to further understand the environment. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 400. Special Problems in Design (formerly LDAR 500) Credit 3(3-0)
This is a course for landscape architecture students to work on independent study projects. Prerequisite: Consent of the instructor and Program Coordinator. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 440. Design Proposal Writing (formerly LDAR 572) Credit 3(3-0)
This course is intended to assist students in selecting an individual capstone project, finding and organizing appropriate information needed for the project, and firmly establishing parameters for the design and development of the project. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 442. Design in Practice (formerly LDAR 510) Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a study of the professional practice of landscape architecture with emphasis on creating and maintaining a professional firm. Professional ethics and registration laws; the preparation of proposals and contract documents; office administration; job supervision, and relationships with clients and customers will be covered. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 443. Design Theory (formerly LDAR 520) Credit 3(3-0)
Lectures on historic and contemporary issues relating to the theory and practice of landscape architecture are the focus of this seminar. There will be individual research and group discussions during this lecture class. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 444. Designing with Plants Studio (formerly LDAR 550) Credit 3(0-6)
This studio course will study the fundamentals of design as applied to aesthetic and functional arrangements with emphasis on native and ornamental plant material. Problems will include preparation of planting plans, cost estimates and technical specifications. Prerequisites: LDAR 204 and 205. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 445. Construction Documents Studio (formerly LDAR 560) Credit 3(0-6)
This studio course will serve as a capstone to Landscape Architectural Construction studio with emphasis on understanding and preparing complete sets of construction documents for landscape architecture projects. Prerequisite: LDAR 346. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 447. The Collaborative Studio (formerly LDAR 570) Credit 4(0-8)
This studio course is an in-depth group study of a comprehensive landscape architecture management, planning, and design problem while considering the research, programming, site analysis, conceptual studies, preliminary and master plan, design guidelines, and presentations of recommendations. Prerequisite: LDAR 348. (F;S;SS)

LDAR 448. The Personal Discovery Studio (formerly LDAR 571) Credit 4(0-8)
This studio course focuses on an approved design problem requiring individual work, which will serve as a comprehensive examination. Preparation and presentation are to include a written and graphic problem statement, analysis, and detailed plans, or other activities approved by instructor. Prerequisite: LDAR 447. (F;S;SS)


NARS 100. Introduction to Natural Resources and Environmental Design Credit 3(3-0)
This course is designed to assist students in making personal adjustments to college living; it provides Introduction to the broad areas of natural resources and environmental design and a study of the curricula and professional opportunities in the field. In addition, this course provides a forum for dialogue among students, industry, and academia to work in partnership to define current and emerging issues in natural resources and environmental design. This course is only for freshman students in the department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design. (F;S)

NARS 110. Introduction to Urban and Community Horticulture Credit 3(2-2)
This introductory course emphasizes basic knowledge in botanical fundamentals of higher plants; plant growth and development; and essential principles in crop, horticulture and forestry sciences. (F;S)

NARS 250. Insects, Man and Environment Credit 3(3-0)
This course will explore the importance of insects and other arthropods in every aspect of human society, the reasons for their success and the environmental impact of controlling them. Illustrations will be used that transcend all disciplines and cultures, including their use as scientific models, decorative artifacts, human food, disease therapy and folklore, among others. (F:S:SS – DEMAND)

NARS 305. Principles of Plant Breeding Credit 3(2-2)
This is an introductory course with emphasis placed on basic principles of plant improvement through genetics; it is required of all Plant Science majors. Prerequisite: BIOL 140 or ANSC 214. (DEMAND)

NARS 307. Forage Crops Credit 3(2-2)
This course is the study of grasses, legumes and other plants and their uses as hay pasture, silage and special purposes of forages, identification of plants and seeds and study of quality in hay, silage and pasture population. Prerequisite: NARS 110. (DEMAND) 

NARS 400. Mycology & Fungal Bioechnology Credit 3(3-0)
This course provides an introduction to the various groups of fungi and their morphology, biological activities, economic importance and their applications in biotechnology, bioremediation, waste recycling/bioconversion and bioproducts development. Prerequisites: BIOL 101 or any intro-biology, microbioloty or biofchemistry course. (F:S:SS)

NARS 492. Seminar in Plant Science and Technology Credit 1(1-0)
This course examines current problems in Plant Science and Technology. Designed especially for unifying the three major areas of the Department by involving the staff with junior and senior students. (F)

NARS 496. Capstone Credit 3(3-0)
Students will be required to spend one semester or the summer in an approved government agency, or private firm conducting practical work, observation and/or directed professional activities. (F;S)

Advanced Undergraduate and Graduate

AGRI 604. Experimental Methods in Research Credit 3(2-2)
Experimental design, methods and techniques of experimentation, application of experimental design to plant, Animal and food research; and interpretation of experimental data will be included in the course. Prerequisite: MATH 224. (F)

NARS 601. Plant Pathology & Modern Approaches to Plant Disease Control Credit 3(2-2)
Fundamental principles of plant pathology, including disease etiology, symptomatology, epidemiology of representative of Different crop and tree disease will be covered. Modern and biotechnology approaches to disease identification and control will also be covered. (F;S;SS)

NARS 608. Special Problems in Natural Resources Credit 3(3-0)
The courses designed for students who desire to study special problems in Natural Resources; plant, soil, and environment. (F;S)

NARS 618. General Forestry Credit 3(2-2)
This course is the study of the history, classification, culture, and utilization of native trees, with special emphasis on their importance as a conservation resource, the making of national forestry policy, and the ecological impact of trees on environmental quality. Prerequisite: BIOL 140. (SS)


Thomas C. Crawford
Associate Professor
B.S., Old Dominion University; M.L.A., Ph.D., North Carolina State University

Beatrice Dingha
Research Specialist
B.S., Nnamdi, Azikiwe University; M.S., University of Ghana; Ph.D., Auburn University

Godfrey A. Gayle
B.S., North Carolina A&T State University; M.S., Ph.D., North Carolina State University

Odile N. Huchette
M.S., Institut Polytechnique de Lorraine

Omoanghe S. Isikhuemhen
B. S., M.S. University of Benin, Nigeria, Ph.D. Institute of Microbiology, MS CR, Prague

Louis E. Jackai
B.S., University of Cape Coast, Ghana, WA; M.S., University of Wisconsin-Superior; Ph.D., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Charles W. Raczkowski
Adjunct Associate Professor
B.S., M.S.; Kansas State University; Ph.D., North Carolina State University

William Randle
B.S.University of Arizona, M.S., Michigan State University; M.S.,  PhD., University of Minnesota

Ramesh Ravella
Research Specialist
B.S., Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University; M.S., Acharya N.G., Range Agricultural University; Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University

John F. Robinson
Sr., A.A., Jr. College of Albany, B.L.A., Louisiana State University, M.L.A., Harvard University, Registered Landscape Architect

Abolghasem Shahbazi
Professor and Interim Chairperson
B.S., University of Tabriz; M.S., University of California at Davis, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University (F.E.)

Godfrey A. Uzochukwu
B.S., M.S., Oklahoma State University; Ph.D., University of Nebraska, Certified Soil Scientist

Lijun Wang
B.S., Zhengzhou University; M.S. South China University of Technology; PhD., National University of Ireland, Dublin

Guochen Yang
B.S., Jilin Agricultural University, M.S., Ph.D., University of Nebraska-Lincoln