Department of History

Arwin D. Smallwood, Chairperson


The Department of History offers students a knowledge of the past that enables them to better understand today’s world and prepare for the future. The Department helps students develop skills in research, analysis, decision-making, and communication. These skills prepare students for successful careers, constructive participation in civic affairs, and lifelong learning. In short, the Department of History emphasizes the personal development of each student.

The specific objectives of the History Department are: 1) to contribute to the general education of students by providing the historical, geographical, and philosophical background for the study of the arts, the sciences, and technical subjects; 2) to provide historical content and professional training to students preparing for careers in fields such as education, law, religion, international affairs, social service, journalism, history, or government; 3) to offer a curriculum that allows students to pursue the history of many areas of the world; 4) to offer a course of study leading to the Master of Science degree in Education and the Master of Arts in Teaching degree with a concentration in history; and, 5) to provide instruction for students preparing for doctoral programs.

In carrying out its aims and objectives, the Department of History offers a broad range of courses in history as well as courses in geography and philosophy. To help ensure student success the Department assigns each student major to an advisor. It is particularly important that students consult their advisors when planning their educational programs. The Department also offers students a variety of extracurricular opportunities to enrich their college experiences. These include two students organizations. The History Scholars and Phi Alpha Theta History Honor Society, as well as numerous public lectures. Finally, the Department participates in the University Honors Program, which enables outstanding students to work closely with faculty members on special course and research assignments.


History – Bachelor of Arts (Curriculum Guide)
History Education – Bachelor of Science (Curriculum Guide)


The admission of students to the undergraduate degree programs in the History Department is based upon the general admission requirements of the University.


History Major – History majors must complete 126-127 credits of University courses. Included in the 126-127 credits are 51 credits in history courses and 15 credits in the social sciences. A minimum grade of “C” must be achieved in these history and social science courses. Students who wish to specialize in the history of Africa and African-Americans may pursue the special concentration in Africana history within the history major.

History Education Major – History Education majors must complete 125-126 credits of University courses. Included in the 125-126 credits are 45 credits in history courses and 15 credits in the social sciences. This major also includes 26 credits of education courses and field experience as a student teacher. Students in this major must earn at least a “C” in all history, social science, general education, and curriculum and instruction courses.

Students in the history education program are provided an opportunity to:

  • Become knowledgeable about man’s past experiences;
  • Study the history of major world civilizations and understand the impact of various groups, institutions, and nations on global development;
  • Understand the social, political, economic, and cultural forces at work in contemporary societies;
  • Become more sensitive to the relationships between history and the other social science disciplines;
  • Develop an understanding of the nature of history and of the methodology of historical research;
  • Develop competencies essential for the effective teaching of history and social studies in secondary schools;
  • Develop proficiency in using computer technology to enhance instruction;
  • Qualify for initial certification in history or social studies in North Carolina; and
  • Prepare for further study at the graduate level and understand the value of life-long learning.

History Minor – The minor in History will consist of 18 semester hours of History (HIST) courses distributed as follows: Required Courses (6 hours to be selected from the following options): HIST 405, 412, 416, 417, 418, 425, 440, 452, 455, 458, 461, 505, 615, 616, 617, 618, 628.  A grade of “C” must be achieved in all history courses.

African American and African History Minor – The minor in African American  and African- History consists of 18 credits of history courses distributed as follows:

  • Required Courses: 12 hours (HIST 201, 202, 215, and 216)
  • Elective Courses: 6 hours to be selected from the following: (HIST 203, 272, 273, 314, 320, 356, 405, 412, 416, 417, 418 , 425, 440, 444, 455, 502, 615, 616, 617, 618, and 628. A minimum grade of “C” must be achieved in these courses.)

Museum Studies Minor – The minor in museum studies consists of 18 credits of courses as follows: HIST 270, 271, 272, 273, 320, and 321.

Philosophy Minor – For a philosophy minor students must complete 18 semester hours of philosophy (PHIL) coursework at the 200 level or above with a “C” minimum grade in each course.


The undergraduate degree program in history leads to careers in journalism, business, archives and museums, international affairs, and government service, among others. It also prepares students for law school, theological seminary, and other graduate and professional school programs.


HIST 130. The World Since 1945 Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the social, economic, political, and cultural roots of today’s world. It focuses on the major developments, events, and ideas that have shaped the world since 1945. Students will master concepts and categories that will allow them to grasp the development of the contemporary world, thus providing them with a framework to understand our times. (F;S;SS)

HIST 201. African-American History to 1877 Credit 3(3-0)
This is a survey of the history of African-Americans in the United States from the African background through the Civil War. The emphasis is on American slavery, the abolition movement, the free African-American community, Civil War, Emancipation, and Reconstruction. (F;S;SS)

HIST 202. African-American History Since 1877 Credit 3(3-0)
This course emphasizes African-American leadership organizations, achievement, and the struggle of African-Americans for equality in the United States since 1877. (F;S;SS)

HIST 203. North Carolina A&T State University: A Legacy of Social Activism and Aggie Pride Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines establishment and evolution of North Carolina A&T State University within the context of the development of American higher education. With the use of various primary and secondary sources, students will gain a greater knowledge of the development and growth of the institution during major historical periods by examining past and present leaders, facilities, programs, and accomplished alumni. Attention will be given to the impact of the University and its alumni on political, social, economic, and intellectual development at the local, national, and international levels. Emphasis is placed on the institution’s and activists’ impact on the Civil Rights movement and the pivotal role that each played. The course will also explore relevant contemporary issues and the institution’s global perspective in the new millennium. (F;S;SS)

HIST 204. U.S. History From 1492-1877 Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the basic diplomatic, political, economic and sociocultural forces in the formation and development of the United States to 1877. Emphasis is placed upon political developments within a broad economic, social and cultural context. (F;S;SS)

HIST 205. U.S. History Since 1877 Credit 3(3-0)
This course continues the examination of basic diplomatic, political, economic and sociocultural forces in the development of the United States since 1877. Study of these major historical elements is pursued in an effort to help students to better understand the problems and challenges of contemporary American life, both domestic and foreign. (F;S;SS)

HIST 206. Pre-Modern World History (Formerly HIST 100) Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the social, political, economic, religious, and cultural developments of the pre-modern world, from prehistory to 1400 C.E. and the beginning of the period of transition to modern.

HIST 207. Modern World History (Formerly HIST 101) Credit  3(3-0)
This course begins in 1400 C.E. and examines the social, political, economic, religious, and cultural developments that contributed to the making of the modern world.

HIST 209. The American Military Experience Credit 3(3-0)
This course is designed primarily to enable the student to understand better the role played by the armed forces in American society today through a study of the origins and development of military institutions, traditions, and practices in the United States, from 1775 to the present. (DEMAND)

HIST 210. History of Asian Americans Credit 3 (3-0)
This course examines the experiences of Asian communities in the united states – their immigration, political, economic, religious, and social life, as well as their relations with non-Asian communities. (DEMAND)

HIST 215. History of Africa to 1800 Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a general survey of the history of Africa to 1800. Major areas of study include the genesis of man in Africa, the ancient world, early East and West civilizations, and the coming of Europe. (F)

HIST 216. History of Africa Since 1800 Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a general survey of the history of Africa since 1800. Major areas of study include the slave trade, the underdevelopment of Africa, Western imperialism and the African partition, and the growth of nationalism. (S)

HIST 220. History of Science and Technology Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a survey of major scientific discoveries and technological innovations since the Scientific Revolution. Special attention will be paid to the Newtonian mechanistic worldview, theories of evolution, relativity, industrial revolution, medical advances, nuclear energy, computers and robotics. The social, economic, and ethical impact of modern scientific and technical discoveries will also be discussed. (DEMAND)

HIST 225. America in the 1960s Credit 3(3-0)
This course surveys and analyzes the various movements which made the 1960s one of the most important and tumultuous decades in American history. Special emphasis will be placed on the civil rights movement, opposition to the Vietnam War, environmentalism, youth culture, and feminism. Attention will also be given to the continuing influence of the 1960s on the development of American society. (DEMAND)

HIST 230. History of Modern Medicine Credit 3(3-0)
This course surveys the development of modern medical theories and practices, the professional development of physicians and nurses, the impact of technology on health care, the rise of hospitals, the intersections between society and medicine, factors affecting wellness, and the current problems facing the American health care system. Attention will also be given to the ethical dilemmas faced by doctors and nurses in this age of high tech health. (DEMAND)

HIST 231. Genocide Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the concept of genocide, the deliberate murder of a specific group of people. After studying various theoretical approaches students will apply these concepts to specific case studies in order to understand, and hopefully prevent, such incidents of atrocious political violence. (F;S;SS)

HIST 250. The Nature, Study, and Writing of History Credit 3(3-0)
The course includes material and presentations leading to an understanding of the basic nature of history, how to study it, methods and techniques in researching and writing it, basic computer and quantification skills, and more summarily, historiography and philosophies of history. (F)

HIST 270. Introduction to Museums Credit 3(3-0)
This course introduces the student to the collecting and educational functions of the museum. Students will learn how museum professionals research, interpret and exhibit the holdings of a museum for the benefit of the community. Students will gain experience in developing their own exhibits. Students will also have the opportunity to visit local historical projects, and museums to study how these agencies carry out mandated duties. (DEMAND)

HIST 271. Museum Practice and Collection Maintenance Credit 3(3-0)
This course introduces students to the duties of museum registrars, curators, conservationists, and administrators. Students will learn how to catalog and preserve the items in a museum’s collection. Students will also visit other local museums to gain greater knowledge of museum operations. (DEMAND)

HIST 272. Oral History Credit 3(3-0)
This course will introduce students to the ethics and techniques of collecting, preserving, and interpreting oral interviews. They will gain practice in using oral evidence, along with original primary sources and photographs, by exploring the role, impact, and consequences of race, gender and class on American history. (DEMAND)

HIST 273. African-American History and Museum Collecting Credit 3(3-0)
Students will develop collections of materials and create exhibits on themes in African American history, especially in North Carolina. Students will learn how to preserve and catalog photographs, documents, and archival materials. They will also be introduced to the theory and ethics of historical collecting, including the criteria which should be used to determine if an item is of museum quality and historical importance. (DEMAND)

HIST 275. Introduction to Women’s Studies Credit 3(3-0)
This course explores the significant of women’s studies, its contemporary relevance, and its pertinence to interdisciplinary scholarship. It introduces students to women’s studies scholars and activists and traces the develop of feminist theory.

HIST 277. Quantitative History Credit 3(3-0)
This course introduces quantitative history and makes use of statistical data in historical research. Students will examine and evaluate works that have utilized quantitative methods; will learn how to access, create, and manage historical databases; and, will utilize statistical data in their own research. (F;S;SS)

HIST 300. Ancient History Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a history of civilizations from the beginnings in the Near East and Egypt through Hellenism and the Roman Empire. (DEMAND)

HIST 301. History of Asian Religions Credit 3(3-0)
This course reviews the origins, doctrines, evolutions, spread, and impact of major Asian religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, and Daoism. (DEMAND)

HIST 302. The Pre-Modern West Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a survey of major developments in the Mediterranean and Western Europe from the origins of the Roman Empire through the end of the Middle Ages. (DEMAND)

HIST 303. History of Capitalism Credit 3(3-0)
This course surveys the history of capitalism from its origins to the present. Students will learn how capitalism works from the standpoint of its structural components, its changing socio-political dynamics in the context of a developing world economy, and its impact on human societies and nature in general. (DEMAND)

HIST 305. Socialism Since Karl Marx Credit 3(3-0)
This course analyzes the transformation of socialist thought and practice since the time of Marx. Special attention will be devoted to Marxist doctrines, nineteenth century Revisionism, Social Democracy, and twentieth century Communism. (DEMAND)

HIST 306. History of Women Since 1800 Credit 3(3-0)
This course will trace the changes in female self-images and roles since the early 19th century in Europe and the United States. It will concentrate upon the growth of new educational and occupational opportunities for women, changing concepts of motherhood, and the rise of female protest movement. (DEMAND)

HIST 307. The Historical Origins of Environmental Crises Credit 3(3-0)
This course will deal with man’s changing philosophical and technological relationship with his natural environment since the start of the Industrial Revolution. (DEMAND)

HIST 312. History of Religions Credit 3(3-0)
This is a course that surveys the origin and development of the traditional religions of India and China and the three “Religions of the Book”: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. (DEMAND)

HIST 313. Perspectives on Globalization Credit 3(3-0)
Drawing heavily on the holdings of the Mattye Reed African Heritage Center and other museums, this course will demonstrate how to use material culture collections of art, artifacts, and archaeological findings to document and interpret African history. (DEMAND)

HIST 314. African Religions Credit 3(3-0)
This course will present a systematic survey of the attitudes of mind and belief that have evolved in many African societies. The course would discuss issues such as the African view of the universe, how god is approached by people, rituals and festivals, morals in African religion, as well as death and the hereafter. The course would also analyze the African contributions to major world religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. (DEMAND)

HIST 319. Topics in World History Credit 3(3-0)
This course will examine selected topics in modern world history. (DEMAND)

HIST 320. African History Through Art and Archaeology Credit 3(3-0)
Drawing heavily on the holdings of the Mattye Reed African Heritage Center and other museums, this course will demonstrate how to use material culture collections of art, artifacts, and archaeological findings to document and interpret African history. (DEMAND) 

HIST 321. Cultural History, Ethnicity, and Ethnographic Collections in America Credit 3(3-0)
By drawing upon the ethnographic and multicultural collections of museums in North Carolina, students will become familiar with the role that museums can play in documenting and interpreting the culturally diverse history of the United States. (DEMAND)

HIST 322. Ethnic Conflict in the Postcolonial World Credit 3(3-0)
The collapse of empires resulted in widespread violence as ethnic groups have fought over access to political and economic power. This class will examine the politicization of ethnic identities through case studies of postcolonial conflicts in Asia, Africa, and Europe. (DEMAND)

HIST 332. The Modern Middle East Credit 3(3-0)
This course will focus on the Middle East from the mid 19th century to the present. Areas of study will include the nature of Islamic society; the rise of nationalism and independence movements; the creation of the state of Israel; and the Arab-Israeli conflict. (DEMAND)

HIST 333. Women and Gender in African History Credit 3(3-0)
This course will analyze historical transformations in Africa and their effects on women’s lives and gender relations. Themes include the role of women in pre-colonial and colonial societies, religious change, urban labor, nationalism, and sexuality. This course will also explore the changing roles of women in twenty-first century Africa. (DEMAND)

HIST 334. Honors in History Credit 3(3-6)
This course examines selected topics in history and requires extensive reading and research. Prerequisites: Honor students or permission of instructor. (DEMAND)

HIST 340. History of England Credit 3(3-0)
This course concentrates on English history since 1688. Special attention is given to the following topics: The Glorious Revolution, industrialization, imperialism, decolonization, Victorianism, Ireland, and contemporary English society. (DEMAND)

HIST 350. Historical Research and Computer Technologies (Formerly HIST 400) Credit 3(3-0)
This course enables students to use computer technologies as a tool for historical research and presentation. Students will learn proper internet research techniques and the challenges associated with the validation of electronic sources. Prerequisite: HIST 250. (F;S;SS)

HIST 351. African-Americans in the American West Credit 3(3-0)
This course covers African-American contributions to the development of the western United States. Emphasis will be on reading, research, and discussion of the African-American experience. (DEMAND)

HIST 355. African-American Historical Perspectives on Africa Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a study of the historical relationship of African-Americans with Africa, stressing the political, economic, and cultural significance of the continent in African-American history and thought. Missionary, repatriation, and Pan-African movements will be analyzed, as well as the evolving image of Africa in African-American popular culture. (DEMAND)

HIST 356. Energy, the Environment, and Development in Africa Credit 3 (3-0)
This course examines issues and problems surrounding the energy and environmental practices and policies in Africa. The role of public policy and natural resources will be discussed. It will analyze both rural and ruban energy needs and problems, and make comparisons with other countries in the Third World. (DEMAND)

HIST 357. Internship in Public History and Museums Credit Variable (1-3)
This course allows students the opportunity to engage in museum studies from a practical standpoint. Students will work a certain number of hours which will match the number of credits received. The appropriate type of museum work for each student will be arranged prior to the beginning of the internship. (DEMAND)

HIST 359. The History of Human Rights Credit 3(3-0)
This course will provide a cultural, legal, and historical introduction to human rights, a central concept and ideal of the contemporary world. Students will examine the long tradition of scholarship in economics, law, political science, sociology, and history. (F;S;SS)

HIST 401. Old Testament History and Literature Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a survey of the books sacred to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam commonly called the Old Testament, in the context of the history of the people of Israel who composed them. (DEMAND)

HIST 402. The Rise of Christianity Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a historical study of the origins and development of the Christian Church from its beginnings to the end of the ancient world (around 476 A.D.). The political, social, economic, intellectual, and religious environment will be considered equally along with the internal development of Christian institutions, beliefs, and practices. (DEMAND)

HIST 405. African-American Religious History (Formerly HIST 404) Credit 3(3-0)
This course surveys the origins and development of religious beliefs and organizations among African-Americans. Topics that will be studied include the rise of separate Christian denominations, African antecedents, the political and social role of the African-American church, and the appearance of Islamic and other religious groups. The relationships of religion to African-American reform and protest movements will be highlighted. (DEMAND)

HIST 407. American Diplomatic History Since 1900 Credit 3(3-0)
American foreign policy and diplomacy from the Spanish-American War to the present will be covered in this course. Emphasis is on the impact of foreign policy upon domestic (U.S.) society and the growing involvement of the U.S. in international relations. Students are encouraged to understand fully and think critically about America’s role in the world. (DEMAND)

HIST 408. Early Modern Europe: Renaissance to 1815 (Formerly HIST 303) Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a survey of major trends in the development of early modern Europe. Topics to be discussed include Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, Absolutism, and the French Revolution. (F)

HIST 409. Modern Europe Since 1815 (Formerly HIST 304) Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a survey emphasizing main trends in European development including political and social impact of the French Revolution, Industrial Revolution, authoritarianism vs. liberalism, church vs. state, nationalism, imperialism, World Wars I and II, Communism, Nazism, and present-day Europe. (S)

HIST 410. American Constitutional History Credit 3(3-0)
The development of American constitutionalism from English origins to the present will be covered in this course. Emphasis on the development of separation of powers, states’ rights, the Supreme Court, and the sectional controversy, economic regulations, and the modernization of the Bill of Rights, especially problems of desegregation, free speech, obscenity and criminal justice. (DEMAND) 

HIST 412. Modernization in Africa from 1920 to the Present Credit 3(3-0)
This course is the study of African development since World War I. Areas of study include nationalism and independence movements, conflicts between traditional and modern ideas, United States and African relations, and racism in Southern Africa. (DEMAND)

HIST 413. Identity and Double-Consciousness: Russian and African-American Cultural Identities Credit 3(3-0)
The topic for this course is identity and “double-consciousness.” This topic will be explored through a comparison of the creative responses of Russians and African-Americans to Western standards of culture and literacy that marginalized and even attempted to erase the historic voices of these cultures.  In both instances the response was cultural construction of an alternative literacy, which involved the very definition of “soul” and rhetoric based on the idea of “double-consciousness.” After examining the construction of the East European “other” by Western Europeans and the shared experience of unfree labor by slaves in North America and serfs in Russia, the emergence and assertion of a distinct cultural identity among both Russian and African-American thinkers will be examined. (F;S;SS)

HIST 414. Nationalism Credit 3(3-0)
Nationalism is one of the most powerful forces in the modern world and is at the root of many of the problems facing humanity.  This theoretical and comparative course will utilize scholarship from a variety of disciplines (history, political science, sociology and geography) in order to examine how and why individuals have joined together to construct a collective identity and how the present draws upon the past to create nationalism. (F;S;SS)

HIST 415. The Automobile and the Making of Modern America Credit 3(3-0)
No country on earth has embraced the automobile as thoroughly as the United States. This course analyzes the reasons for the American love affair with the car and the impact of automobility on American society and culture from the early twentieth century to the present. Topics discussed include the advent of mass production as pioneered by Henry Ford, the transformation of the American landscape to meet the needs of the car, the growth of big labor, the rise of consumer culture, the car as a cultural icon, environmental problems created by unchecked automobile use, the Japanese challenge to American industrial practices, and current efforts to reinvent the car to meet the needs of the future. Prerequisite: HIST 205, HIST 220, or permission of the instructor. (DEMAND)

HIST 416. History of African-American Culture Credit 3(3-0)
This course begins with an investigation of early African-American cultural developments, folk culture, and religious expression in Antebellum America. It also pays special attention to the cultural trends of the twentieth century, the “Harlem Renaissance,” and urban life. (DEMAND)

HIST 417. Colonialism and Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean (Formerly HIST 317) Credit 3(3-0)
This survey course begins with an examination of pre-Columbian societies. It then considers the changes that accompanied the various European colonial projects in the region, and the coming of Latin America’s political independence. Topics considered include agrarian change and conflict, colonial economic practices, slave systems and slave cultural practices, indigenous resistance and rebellion, the spread and impact of Christianity, colonial state policies, and the role of women. Students will have the opportunity to develop their ability to analyze and evaluate historical materials, and formulate written and oral arguments. (DEMAND)

HIST 418. Conflict and Change in Post-Colonial Latin America and the Caribbean (Formerly HIST 318) Credit 3(3-0)
This course surveys social and political conflict and change beginning with the movements for political independence and concluding with an assessment of recent developments. Topics considered include agrarian change and conflict, economic development and underdevelopment, slave emancipation, gender, urbanization and populism, social revolution, labor, and international relations and foreign intervention. Students will have the opportunity to develop their ability to analyze and evaluate historical materials, and formulate written and oral arguments. (DEMAND)

HIST 419. Ethno Nationalism and Genocide in Eastern Europe Credit 3(3-0)
For most of the recent past the nations of Eastern Europe have been prevented from asserting their identities fully in independent nation states. In such conditions the idea of the nation became utopian. The collapse of the Soviet Union engendered endless conflicts that resulted in the rise of ethno nationalism throughout Eastern Europe, and led to genocide in the Balkans and still threatens peace and stability in the region today. The critique of nationalism from the standpoint of democracy and the relationship between democracy and nationalism will also be examined. (F;S;SS)

HIST 420. Seminar: Urban America Credit 3(3-0)
This course includes special topics in the rise of the American city and the development of urban patterns of life, concentrates on such themes as population shifts to cities, the development of slums and ghettos, growth of municipal institutions and services, and the relationship of government with city residents. Prerequisites: HIST 205 and consent of the instructor. (DEMAND)

HIST 421. Exploring Europe’s ‘Others’ Credit 3(3-0)
This course will examine that deliberate historical construction of the image of “Eastern” Europe and the “Balkans” which categorized entire peoples as being half-barbarian and thus only half-civilized. This served to convince “Western” Europeans of their own superiority so that the terms “Eastern” Europe and “Balkans” became synonymous with ethnic hatred, backwardness and barbarism. Students will look at literature from these regions in order to understand their struggle to confront, resist and critique these stereotypes. (F;S;SS)

HIST 422. Colonizer and Colonized: The British Imperial Experience Credit 3(3-0)
Imperialism was a shared experience that remade the cultures of both the colonized and the colonizers. Using Great Britain in general and London in particular as a basis for comparison, the course will begin with a discussion of the classic interpretations and criticisms of empire and then look at how the imperial experience changed Victorian England into today’s vibrant multicultural and multiracial society. Students will also examine the psychological effects of empire on both colonizers and colonized through the reading of several classic novels. (F;S;SS)

HIST 425. Topics in African-American History Credit 3(3-0)
This is an intensive reading, research, and discussion course that will address selected topics in African-American history, including the African background, the institution of slavery, Abolitionism, the Reconstruction era, migration out of the South, the Civil Rights Movement, and African-American intellectual traditions. Prerequisite: HIST 201 and HIST 202 or permission of the instructor. (DEMAND)

HIST 430. Topics in Twentieth Century American History Credit 3(3-0)
This course includes in-depth analysis of selected topics since the late nineteenth century, with special emphasis on written historical communication. Prerequisites: 6 hours of American history (204 and 205) and the consent of the instructor. (DEMAND)

HIST 431. East Asian History to 1800 (Formerly HIST 330) Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a study of the history and culture of the Chinese, Japanese, and Vietnamese peoples from the early classical civilizations to the middle Ch’ing. (DEMAND)

HIST 432. East Asian History since 1800 (Formerly HIST 331) Credit 3(3-0)
Areas of study include traditional China under the Ch’ing, the impact of the West, feudal Japan, modernization of Meiji Japan, the Chinese Revolutions, and the Chinese model in Vietnam. (DEMAND)

HIST 433. United States-East Asian Relations Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the evolution of the relations between the United States and East Asian countries in the 19th and 20th centuries.  It will focus on such themes as mutual perceptions of Americans and East Asians, activities of American merchants and missionaries in the region, East Asian immigration to the United States, the Pacific War, the Korean War, the Vietnamese War, and the normalization of Sino-American relations. (F;S;SS)

HIST 435. Global History Since 1945 Credit 3(3-0)
This course requires intensive study of world historical developments since the beginning of the twentieth century. Through examination of primary and secondary sources, students will be expected to demonstrate an advanced understanding of the economic, political, social, cultural and environmental forces and developments that distinguish contemporary world history as a distinct historical epoch. Prerequisite: HIST 201, HIST 202, HIST 204, HIST 205, HIST 206, HIST 207 and HIST 250. (F;S;SS)

HIST 440. African-American Intellectual/Philosophical History Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the ideologies and programs of African-American leaders who have commanded both national and international attention from the antebellum period to the present. Special consideration will be given to the philosophical continuities and differences among leaders in the twentieth century. (DEMAND)

HIST 444. History of West Africa Since 1800 Credit 3(3-0)
This course explores the process by which the peoples of West Africa became integrated in the modern world system, examines cultural and scientific developments of the region, analyzes regional and Pan-African issues, and provides an in-depth study of major themes and problems in West African history. (DEMAND)

HIST 450. Modernization in Historical Perspective Credit 3(3-0)
This course concentrates on an analysis of the various paths to modernity taken by several advanced societies, notably the United States, England, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan. Particular attention will be devoted to the causes and effects of industrialization, population growth, urbanization, social protest, changes in family structure, intellectual responses to rapid change, and the development of the modern state. (DEMAND)

HIST 451. Russian History (Formerly HIST 350) Credit 3(3-0)
This course surveys the history of Russia from earliest times to the present, with emphasis on the twentieth century. (DEMAND)

HIST 452. Hitler’s Germany Credit 3(3-0)
This course will examine the social and political history of the Third Reich. Special attention will be paid to Hitler’s racial policies and the Holocaust. (F;S;SS)

HIST 455. Comparative Slavery of the Americas Credit 3(3-0)
This course compares the development of different slave labor systems in the Americas from the fifteenth through the nineteenth centuries. After a brief consideration of slavery in the ancient world, the course examines the African origins of the slaves; the Atlantic slave trade; and slave life, work, culture, resistance, and emancipation in North America, Latin America, and the Caribbean. (DEMAND)

HIST 458. Asian Perceptions of Health Preservation in Historical Perspective (Formerly HIST 358) Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the origins, evolutions, and influences of some popular Asian health preservation techniques such as Indian Yoga and Chinese taiji (tai-chi) and development of modern health-care systems in major Asian countries (Japan, India, and China). (F;S;SS)

HIST 460. The Old South (Formerly HIST 360) Credit 3(3-0)
This course will focus upon the social, political, cultural, and economic evolution of the Old South from the 17th century through the Civil War and Reconstruction eras. In addition, the question of Southern distinctiveness and the tension between democracy and slavery will be analyzed. Issues of race, class, gender and religion will also be central to the course’s investigation of rural and urban development in Southern society through 1877. North Carolina will be used frequently as a case in point. (DEMAND)

HIST 461. History of the New South (Formerly HIST 361) Credit 3(3-0)
This course offers a chronological exploration of the history of the South from the end of Reconstruction in 1877 through the development of the concept of “The New South” to the politics and culture of the “Sunbelt South” of today. Major topics will include the political, economic and social conditions after Reconstruction; the myths and realities of the “New South”; Populism and Fusion politics; segregation and disfranchisement in the “New South”; the South in the Progressive Era and World War I; race, religion, gender, class and culture; the Depression and the new Deal; the South after World War II; urbanization and industrialization; and the Civil Rights movement. North Carolina will be used frequently as a case in point. (DEMAND)

HIST 462. Utopoas of Race, Class and Nation Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the unprecedented mass killings of the 20th century and beyond that were carried out by states pursuing a utopia based on national, racial and political ideologies. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing. (F;S;SS)

HIST 477. Technology, Empire, and Popular Culture Credit 3(3-0)
This course focuses on the technologies of the New Imperialism of the late nineteenth Century both in the context of their use against native populations in various parts of the world and as mechanisms for building consensus in home countries for imperial adventures abroad. It will also examine the process whereby East Asia, South and Southeast Asia, Latin America, and Africa were consolidated into a new global system of Western dominance. Sites such as international expositions, public museums and libraries, and new forms of mass culture and amusement will be explored to demonstrate the appeal of empire in the West. Prerequisites: HIST 250 and 101 or 205 or permission of the instructor. (DEMAND)

HIST 501. 20th and 21st Century Women Activists of the World Credit 3(3-0)
This course is designed to introduce students to women activists, many of them not widely known to the general audience, who fought or are still fighting for social and economic change and justice in the United States and around the world. Women of all races, economic classes, and varying geographic locations will be studied. The class will examine a multitude of issues for which these women advocate, expanding student understanding of the role of global female activism. The emphasis upon “struggle over time” and “strategies for change” make this an important conversation for men and women alike.

HIST 502. Research Seminar in Africana Historiography: A Comparative Approach Credit 3(3-0)
This course takes comparative and interdisciplinary approach to studying the historiography of Africans in Africa and throughout the Diaspora. The primary course objective is for students to learn the general chronology and methodological approaches of Africana historians. Students will utilize anti-colonial, liberation, and critical theory paradigms in their research.

HIST 599. Senior Seminar Credit 3(3-0)
This is a capstone course for undergraduate majors in the History Department. The course will address enduring topics of historical interest requiring extensive readings and a research paper. Prerequisite: Senior standing with a major in History or History Education. Other students may take the course with the permission of the instructor. (F)

CUIN 536. Methods of Teaching Social Sciences Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a study of techniques of social science instruction on the high school level. It is required of those planning to teach the subject. Prerequisites: 27 semester hours of social studies and 15 semester hours of education and psychology. (F)

Advanced Undergraduate and Graduate

HIST 600. The British Colonies and the American Revolution Credit 3(3-0)
The planting and maturation of the English colonies of North America are required. Relationships between Europeans, Indians, and transplanted Africans, constitutional development, religious ferment, and the colonial economy are studied. (DEMAND)

HIST 603. Civil War and Reconstruction Credit 3(3-0)
Causes as well as constitutional and diplomatic aspects of the Civil War, the role of the African-American in slavery, in war, and in freedom, and the socio-economic and political aspects of Congressional Reconstruction and the emergence of the New South are studied. (DEMAND)

HIST 606. U.S. History, 1900-1932 Credit 3(3-0)
This course emphasizes political, economic, social, cultural and diplomatic developments from 1900 to 1932 with special attention to their effect upon the people of the United States and their influence on the changing role of the U.S. in world affairs. (DEMAND)

HIST 607. U.S. Since 1932-Present Credit 3(3-0)
With special emphasis on the Great Depression, New Deal, the Great Society, and the expanding role of the United States as a world power, World War II, cold war, and the Korean and Vietnam conflicts are studied. Major themes include the origin, consolidation, and expansion of the New Deal, the growth of executive power, the origins and spread of the Cold War, civil liberties, civil rights, and challenges for the extension of political and economic equality and the protection of the environment. (DEMAND)

HIST 610. Seminar in the History of Twentieth Century Technology Credit 3(3-0)
This is a reading, research, and discussion course, which investigates the development and, especially, the impact of major twentieth century technologies. Attention will also be given to the process of invention, the relationship between science and technology, and the ethical problems associated with some contemporary technologies. (DEMAND)

HIST 615. Seminar in African-American History Credit 3(3-0)
This is a reading, research, and discussion course, which concentrates on various aspects of the life and history of African-Americans. The emphasis is placed on historiography and major themes including nationalism, black leadership and ideologies, and economic development. (DEMAND)

HIST 616. Seminar in African History Credit 3(3-0)
Research, writing and discussion on selected topics in African history will be included in this course. (DEMAND)

HIST 617. Readings in African History Credit 3(3-0)
By arrangement with instructor. (SS)

HIST 618. The African Diaspora Credit 3(3-0)
This is an advanced reading, research, and discussion course on the historical experience of people of African descent in a global context. It examines the worldwide dispersal and displacement of Africans over time, emphasizing their migration and settlement abroad over the past five centuries. (DEMAND)

HIST 619. Modern China Credit 3(3-0)
This course will begin with attention to the main characteristics of traditional Chinese civilization. The focus of the course will be on the political, social, economic, and intellectual changes in Chinese society from the 1840s to the present. (F;S;SS)

HIST 622. History of Asian Women Credit 3(3-0)
This course briefly examines the conditions of Asian (especially South Asian and East Asian) women in traditional societies and focuses on the changes in women’s status in modern times (since 1800). It covers primarily the following topics: women and economic modernization (especially the impact of industrialization on women), the impact of the introduction of Western ideas (such as feminism) on women, women and wars (revolutions – especially in China, Korea, and Vietnam), women and crimes, women’s political participation, and gender relations. (F;S;SS)

HIST 623. Topics in East Asian Culture Credit 3(3-0)
This course aims at illuminating some key features of East Asian culture, especially in modern times. It is concerned with East Asians’ beliefs on a variety of issues (e.g., human relations, man-nature relations, state-society relations, and health) and the changes of these beliefs in the context of Western influence. Considerable attention will be given to such major intellectual schools as Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. (F;S;SS)

HIST 626. Revolutions in the Modern World Credit 3(3-0)
This is a seminar course stressing comparative analysis of revolutions and revolutionary movements in the United States, France, Russia, China, Cuba, and Iran. Students will also evaluate theories of revolution in light of historical examples. (DEMAND)

HIST 628. The Civil Rights Movement Credit 3(3-0)
From original research, class lectures, and discussions, students will become familiar with the nature of the Civil Rights Movement; will evaluate its successes and failures; and will analyze the goals and tactics of each major participating Civil Rights organization. Students will also evaluate the impact of the Civil Rights Movement on American society. (DEMAND)

HIST 629. Seminar on the History of Early Modern Europe Credit 3(3-0)
Through extensive readings, discussion, research, and writing, students will examine selected topics of enduring importance in the history of Europe from the Renaissance through the French Revolution. (DEMAND)

HIST 630. Studies in European History, 1815-1914 Credit 3(3-0)
This is an intensive study of selected topics in nineteenth century European history. (DEMAND)

HIST 633. Independent Study in History Credit 3(3-0)
By arrangement with instructor. (F;S;SS)

HIST 699. Methods and Internship in History Credit 3(2-8)
This required course for students in the M.A.T. program focuses on a field experience that emphasizes the development and use of teaching strategies, methods, skills, and assessments as they relate to the principles of teaching and learning in the area of history education. Candidates will learn to apply, plan and manage skills related to instruction, discipline, behavioral concerns and decision-making in small group and whole class instruction. Course content will include a variety of teaching strategies, methods, skills, and instructional resources. (F;S)


GEOG 200. Principles of Geography Credit 3(3-0)
This course surveys the physical characteristics of the earth’s surface including landforms, climates, vegetation and soils. The emphasis is on global variations and interactions among these physical characteristics. (F;S)

GEOG 210. World Regional Geography Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a survey of the geographic character of the major culture regions of the world. Contemporary cultural characteristics are examined within the framework of both environmental relationships and historical development. (F;S)

GEOG 319. Regional Geography of the United States and Canada Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a study of geographic regions of the United States and Canada. (DEMAND)

GEOG 322. Economic Geography Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a geographical survey of major economic activity with emphasis on global patterns of production and exchange of commodities that are strategic in sustaining the world’s population and modern economic development. (DEMAND)

Undergraduate and Graduate

GEOG 640. Topics in Geography of the United States and Canada Credit 3(3-0)
Selected topics in cultural geography of the United States and Canada are studied intensively. Emphasis is placed upon individual reading and research and group discussion. (DEMAND)

GEOG 641. Topics in World Geography Credit 3(3-0)
Selected topics in geography are studied intensively. Concern is for cultural characteristics and their interrelationships with each other and with habitat. Emphasis is upon reading, research, and discussion. (DEMAND)


PHIL 260. Introduction to Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This is an introductory course covering such topics as theories of reality, the nature of mind and knowledge, and the higher values of life. (S)

PHIL 261. The Meaning of Life Credit 3(3-0)
This course will examine two interrelated questions. What is the meaning of life? What makes a particular life meaningful or meaningless? By analyzing literature, philosophical writings, and film, students will participate in a reflective investigation of subjective and objective answers to these questions. (DEMAND)

PHIL 262. Logic Credit 3(3-0)
This is an introductory course designed to give a critical analysis of the principles, problems and fallacies in reasoning. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 263. Ethics of Good Life and Character Building Credit 3(3-0)
This course explores the role of ethics in achieving a good life. The goal is to encourage students to reflect about their motivations and to contemplate the sort of character they might aspire to build. Questions examined include: What virtues make a person good? To what extent is self-interest compatible with being a virtuous person? What makes life meaningful? Why should we act morally and show concern for others? (F;S;SS)

PHIL 264. Contemporary African American Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course has two objectives. First, it exposes students to the contributions made by African Americans to philosophy. Second, it explores issues of philosophy unique to the African American experience. Readings are drawn from both contemporary and classic sources. Comparisons between African American and African philosophy will be made. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 265. World Religions Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the teachings and practices of the world’s major religions. This exploration is conducted as a factual approach in which the history, beliefs, philosophy, practices and important figures of each religion are presented. Religions covered include African and Native American oral traditions, Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Shinto, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and new religious movements. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 266. Contemporary Moral Problems Credit 3(3-0)
This course begins with an examination of various ethical theories and then applies these theories to address moral challenges faced by today’s society. Topics include the environment, abortion, treatment of animals, drug use, pornography, hate speech, euthanasia, famine relief, affirmative action and the death penalty. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 267. Philosophy of Love and Friendship Credit 3(3-0)
In this course students will undertake a conceptual analysis of the terms “love” and “friendship.” Questions addressed include: What are the various types of love? Does a person need friends in order to achieve happiness? And what are the minimal requirements of friendship? Students will survey a variety of philosophical and contemporary literature along with examples from film and popular culture to investigate the nature of love and friendship. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 268. Introduction to Ethics Credit 3(3-0)
This introductory course covers basic ethical theory, its history, and major authors. This course is designed to give students a vocabulary for discussing ethics as well as the skills necessary to articulate and apply normative positions. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 309. Contemporary Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course involves a critical investigation of some contemporary movements in philosophy with special emphasis on existentialism, pragmatism, and positivism. (DEMAND)

PHIL 310. Feminist Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course will introduce students to some of feminist theory's contributions to philosophy. Students will explore various feminist perspectives and analyze the intellectual commitments, world views, and values of each school of thought. Students will then investigate how feminist theory relates to contemporary philosophical issues such as development programs in third world countries, pornography and reproductive. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 311. Philosophy of Punishment Credit 3(3-0)
This course introduces students to philosophical theories of punishment and investigates what types of punishments are morally justified. Issues examined include the normative scope for criminalization, the moral permissibility of capital punishment, the insanity defense, the prosecution of minors as adults and other related issues. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 312. Political Philosophies of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr. Credit 3(3-0)
This course contrasts the philosophies of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr. on race and racism, nonviolence and self-defense, integration and separatism, and Christianity and Islam. Students will be introduced to the political and social culture that shaped the thoughts and worldviews of Malcolm X and Dr. King. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 313 Philosophy of Sports Credit 3(3-0)
This course will consider several philosophical problems in sport: What is sport? What is the value of sports? How should we conduct ourselves when we play sports? Are there sports which are morally wrong? Students will examine ethical and political issues which have arisen in sports including Title IX, gender equity, racism, sexism, drug use, cheating and doping. Prerequisites: None. (F;S;SS) 

PHIL 314. Social and Political Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course considers the essential features of various types of government (democracy, monarchy, fascism, etc.) and justifications for the existence of any form of government. Through a historical, thematic and analytic exposition, students will survey the political theories of philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Hegel, Mill, Marx, Rawls, Nozick, Foucault, Althusser, Fanon and Nkrumah. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 315. Business Ethics Credit 3(3-0)
This course will introduce students to ethical challenges faced in an international business world. Using a case studies approach, students will survey major theories of ethics, examine current ethical practices in business, and learn to formulate, articulate, and defend their own answers to business ethics' questions. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 316. Environmental Ethics Credit 3(3-0)
This course is an introduction to the philosophical study and moral assessment of human interaction with other species and the environment in which we live. Students will survey several environmental ethics theories including biocentrism, ecocentrism, deep ecology and social ecology and then apply these ethical tools to address real-world environmental problems. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 317. Medical Ethics Credit 3(3-0)
This course introduces students to ethical challenges arising within the practice of medicine. Topics considered include truth-telling, informed consent, confidentiality, medical futility, euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, gene therapy, social justice in health care, use of animals and humans subjects in medical research, and organ transplantation. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 318. Honors in Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course includes an examination of selected philosophical topics. May be repeated for credit. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 319. Wabash-Provost Scholars Research Credit 1(1-0)
This course provides student researchers training in collection, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of qualitative and quantitative institutional research data. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: Acceptance in Wabash-Provost Scholars Program. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 320. Ethics and Technology Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines ethical issues arising from scientific and technological advancements. After exploring various standards of morality, students analyze issues such as reproductive technologies, cloning, genetic engineering, stem cell research, life-span extension, genetically modified foods, and ethical concerns within nanotechnology. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 400. Ancient Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course will examine the history of philosophy from the ancient Greeks t medieval Europeans.  Philosophers discussed include the pre-Socratics, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, and Augustine. Topics will range from theories of nature, persons happiness, human knowledge, the good life, and the existence of God. Special focus will be on how each philosopher progressed ideas during this time period, thus setting the stage for modern philosophy. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 401. Modern Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course will examine the history of philosophy from Descartes through Kant. Special focus will be given to the Rationalists (Descartes, Leibniz and Spinoza) and the Empiricists (Locke, Berkeley and Hume). Topics discussed include the possibility of human knowledge, the existence of God, the nature of causation, and the mind-body problem. How the moderns differed from the ancients, the impact the moderns had on the direction of philosophy, and the role women played in this philosophical change will also be explored. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 402. Philosophy of Law Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a philosophical investigation into the nature of law. Students will examine various theories of  jurisprudence including natural law, legal positivism, legal naturalism, and legal realism. The course will also consider the relationship between law and morality and between equality and the law. Finally, students will investigate various philosophical problems in criminal and tort law.

PHIL 403. Philosophy of Science Credit 3(3-0)
This course will examine the most basic concepts and principles at work in scientific inquiry. Students will investigate the nature of scientific explanation, consider various scientific theories, theories of truth, and explore the distinction between science, metaphysics, and pseudoscience. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 404. Philosophy, Marxism, and the Africana World Credit 3(3-0)
This course analyzes the main ideas of Marxism and their development in the Africana world. Through an examination of early socialist and late twentieth century thinkers, students will acquire a basic understanding of Marxist theory and a historical understanding of Marxism in Africa and the Africana diaspora. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 405. Philosophy of Religion Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the origins of the religious impulse, and religious myth and ritual as they have developed in the history of human societies. It considers classical arguments for and against the existence of god(s) and the immortality of the human soul, various views of the nature of god, and the challenge to the religious worldview posed by suffering and “evil.” (F;S;SS)

PHIL 406. Logic for the Legal Profession Credit 3(3-0)
This course focuses on the development of the logical and analytical reasoning skills required in the legal profession. Students will practice argument analysis, identification of assumptions, parallel reasoning, drawing inferences, applying general principles, and recognition of flawed reasoning. The course will be offered for a Pass/Fail grade. Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 441. Media Ethics Credit 3(3-0)
This course applies ethical theory to issues within the media profession. The course begins with an examination of major ethical approaches and decision-making strategies and examines some ethical challenges faced by  media professionals. Topics include privacy versus “the right to know.” Accuracy, fairness, exploitation in advertising, deceptive practices, media accountability, conflicts of interest, the public interest versus ratings, and the Digital Millennium Act.

PHIL 492. Seminar in Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course is designed for students to examine special philosophical topics or conduct a senior research project.


Sarah Beale
Visiting Lecturer
B.A., Wake Forest College; M.A.T., Duke University

Olen Cole, Jr.
B.A., M.A., California State University – Fresno; Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

James Crawford
Assistant Professor
B.A., Pennsylvania State University; M.A., Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Michael Cundall Jr.
Assistant Professor and Director, University Honors Program
B.A., University of Kentucky; Ph.D., University of Cincinnati

Galen Foresman
Associate Professor
B.A., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill;  M.A., Ph.D., Bowling Green State University

Fuabeh P. Fonge
B.A., University of Yaounde; M.A., Georgetown University; Ph.D., Howard University

David Harris
Visiting Lecturer
B.A., University of North Carolina at Wilmington, B.A., B.S., University of North Carolina at Greensboro; M.A., Indiana University

Karen L. Hornsby
Associate Professor
B.A., California State University-Sacramento; M.A., Ph.D., Bowling Green State University

Conchita F. Ndege
B.F.A., Xavier University; M.A., Ph.D., Howard University

Thomas E. Porter
B.A., Loyola College; M.A., Ph.D., University of Washington

Michael Roberto
Associate Professor
B.A., Adelphi University; M.A., University of Rhode Island; Ph.D., Boston College

Philip Rubio
Associate Professor
B.A., Vermont College of Norwich University; M.A., North Carolina Central University; Ph.D., Duke University

Arwin D. Smallwood
Professor and Chairperson
B.A., M.A., North Carolina Central University; Ph.D.,The Ohio State University

Dwana Waugh
Assistant Professor and Undergraduate and Graduate History Education Coordinator
B.A., Randolph-Macon Woman’s College; M.A., Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

James A. Wood
B.A., Tufts University; M.A., Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Yunqui Zhang
Associate Professor and Associate Chair
B.A., Qufu Normal University; M.A., Ph.D., University of Toronto