Department of Biology

Mary A. Smith, Chairperson
Roy J. Coomans, Associate Chairperson


The objectives of the Department of Biology are as follows:

  1. to prepare students for careers in research, industry, and government.
  2. to prepare students for graduate study in the biological sciences.
  3. to prepare students for admission to professional schools (i.e. medical, dental, and veterinary school).
  4. to provide courses in biology that fulfill the general education core requirements of the university.
  5. to provide cognate courses for students majoring in or receiving certification in other fields including, but not limited to, agricultural and environmental science, nursing, and human performance and leisure studies.
  6. to serve as a resource to the university and community through cooperative programs, workshops, seminars, course offerings, and public service.
  7. to conduct research and scholarly activity in the areas of biology, biotechnology, computational biology, and biology education.
  8. to provide students with experience in the applications of computers in biological research.


Biology – Bachelor of Science (Curriculum Guide)
Secondary Education (Biology) – Bachelor of  Science (Curriculum Guide)

Students interested in pursuing the Bachelor of Science degree in the Department of Biology are advised that rigorous high school preparation is important to success. The Department strongly recommends that a prospective student's preparation include 5 units of high school science (including units in biology, chemistry and physics) and at least 1 unit of mathematics beyond Algebra II.


To be admitted into the undergraduate degree programs of the Department of Biology incoming freshmen must meet all of the following requirements:

  • English: Four course units emphasizing grammar, composition, and literature
  • Foreign Language: Two course units in the same language
  • Mathematics: Four course units including Algebra I, Algebra II, Geometry, and a higher level mathematics course for which Algebra II is a prerequisite
  • Science: Three course units including at least one unit in a life or biological science, at least one unit in a physical science, and at least one laboratory course
  • Social Science: Two course units including one in United States history
  • A minimum SAT (math plus reading comprehension) combined score of 800 or an ACT composite score of 16
  • A minimum high school grade point average of 2.5 (unweighted)


Biology – Students are required to complete a minimum of 124 hours for graduation. This includes a minimum of 49 semester hours of biology and 40 semester hours of supporting math and science courses. The remaining courses satisfy other requirements of the Department and University.

Biology, Secondary Education – Students following the teacher education sequence are required to complete a minimum of 127 semester hours. Included in these 127 hours are a minimum of 37 semester hours of biology and 66 semester hours of supporting courses. The remaining courses satisfy the University’s and School of Education’s general education requirements.

Transfer students from other colleges and universities and from other disciplines at A&T must have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or higher in all college work. All biology majors must maintain a cumulative GPA of 2.3 or higher. Any student whose GPA falls below 2.3 will be placed on probation at the end of that semester. If a student placed on probation does not raise his/her cumulative GPA to the minimum of 2.3 within two semesters he/she will be advised to change to another major. All biology majors must have a cumulative GPA of 2.3 or higher to qualify for graduation. Biology majors must earn a grade of “C” or higher in all biology courses. Any student earning a grade less than “C” must repeat the biology course.


Several enrichment programs and activities are available to students in the department, which are designed to increase the knowledge and competitiveness of biology majors. They include:

  1. Departmental Seminars All students are encouraged to attend seminars presented by research scientists from industry, medical institutions, research laboratories and universities.
  2. The Life and Physical Sciences Research Symposium. This is a forum for faculty and students to present their research, an occasion for all science students to interact with prominent scientists from government, industry, or academia and become aware of research opportunities.
  3. Undergraduate Research and Academic Training Programs: NIH sponsored Maximizing Access to Research Careers (MARC), and Research Initiatives for Scientific Enhancement (RISE) programs; NSF sponsored iBLEND:An Integrative Biomathematical Learning and Empowerment Network for Diversity program; RISE sponsored, Sophomore Immersion Program in Research and Academics (SIPRA) and Summer Pre-matriculation programs.
  4. Pre-Professional Biological Sciences Association. The club includes a chartered Student National Dental Association, Student Medical Association Program, and a National Black Graduate Student Association Chapter. Activities include field trips, seminars, and community service, promotion of careers in health care and preparation for national entrance examinations to professional schools. Advisors: Dr. Catherine White and Dr. Perry Mack.
  5. Honor Societies. Tau Phi Chapter of the Beta Beta Beta National Biological Honor Society. Advisor: Dr. Checo Rorie.Beta Kappa Chi National Scientific Honor Society. Advisor: Dr. Claude Lamb (Chemistry Department).
  6. Retreats. Hosts an annual Faculty Strategic Planning Retreat, an annual Graduate Student Retreat, an Annual New Student Orientation Program and an Undergraduate Research Retreat.
  7. Faculty/Student Advisement. All biology majors have an assigned faculty advisor who will provide pin numbers, advice on course scheduling, career counseling, university resources, and personal issues that may affect academic performance. Students should schedule appointments to see advisors at least two times a semester.


  1. Herbarium (NCATG). A collection of approximately 6,000 specimens, several dozen of which were collected in the 1800’s. NCATG is registered internationally.
  2. Computer Room. This satellite computer center, located in Barnes Hines Hall, has 16-networked computers available for students.
  3. Research Laboratories. The Department of Biology houses several state-of-the art research laboratories to support faculty and student research in molecular biology, biotechnology, microbiology, bioinformatics,
    genomics, ecology, and other biological sciences
  4. Molecular Biology Research Core Lab. This facility is equipped with high through-put technology including a Microarray Analyzer, CEQ 8800 Beckman Genetic Analyzer, 7500 Real Time PCR System, HPLC, -80oC freezers, and an Amersham Flourimager 595 Pentium Workstation 1X71 Digital Microscope (with Camera,Cell Viability Analyser, Water Deiononization system, whole building supplier. Ultra-High Speed Centrifugation Alpha Imaginer, HD2 ChemDoc New Brunswick Scientific, C25 Incubator Shaker Amaxa, AAM-1001 Nucleaofactor 96-well, Water Deiononization system, whole floor supplier.
  5. Lecture Facilities. The teaching facilities in Barnes Hall include a seminar room, auditorium, and a SMART Classroom equipped with and a video-conferencing capability for online communication.
  6. Graduate Student Resource Room. This facility provides space for graduate students to study, network, or relax.
  7. Undergraduate Research Training Center for Student Research Scholars. This facility is equipped with computers, plasma screen, and video conference technology.


As is the standard in quality programs nationally, the department receives training and research support from Federal, State and private funding agencies to support its educational and research missions. Research areas in the department include:

Bioinformatics and Genomics

Ecophysiology and Photosynthetic Electron Transport

Genetic Susceptibility of Alzheimer’s Disease in African Americans

Stress Physiology

Taxonomy & Distribution of Freshwater Algae

Complex Disease and Nutrition

Demographics of Rare Plant Populations


Cancer Biology, Brain Tumorigenesis, Breast Cancer

Computational Biology

Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

Genomics of Haemophilus ducreyii


Fluorescent Biosensor Development & Live Cell Imaging 

Phosphorylation-dependent Signaling

Role of Meprins in Acute and Chronic Kidney Failure

Apoptosis and Cell Signaling

Role of Viral Factors in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis


Due to the depth of required courses in biology and the breadth of support courses in the quantitative sciences, languages, humanities, the arts and others, Biology majors qualify for employment in many fields. Highly motivated graduates in biology compete successfully for entry into graduate and professional schools. Research careers in government and industry as well as jobs in technical and pharmaceutical sales, biotechnology, environmental science, and teacher education are some of the career opportunities available to majors in biology.


BIOL 100. Biological Science Credit 4(3-2)
This is a general education course that stresses the objectives presented under the general education program of the University. This course stresses central concepts in biology including; basic chemical and physical phenomena, biochemistry, cell form and function, genetics, evolution, and multicellular organization. The laboratory will examine major biological concepts. Biological Science is not open to Biology majors. (F;S;SS)

BIOL 101. Concepts of Biology Credit 4(3-2)
This course is an introduction to science and the scientific method, basic biochemistry, cell structure and function, energy and metabolism, reproduction and genetics for those students planning to enroll in additional major courses in the biological sciences.  The laboratory will emphasize central biological concepts. Prerequisite: Credit or concurrent enrollment in CHEM 106 and 116. (F;S)

BIOL 102. Concepts of Biology Credit 4(3-2)
This course is a continuation of BIOL 101. It will include an introduction to evolution, basic ecological principles, and a survey of the diversity of life. The laboratory will survey life's diversity. Prerequisites: BIOL 101.

BIOL 105. Biology Orientation Credit 1(1-0)
This course will introduce students to the university and the Department of Biology. Special emphasis will be placed on succeeding as a biology major, the challenges and expectations, effective study skills, university support services, and university policies and procedures. Students are expected to leave the course with an awareness of how to cope with and overcome the demands of college life and to take advantage of opportunities at the university. Restricted to biology majors.

BIOL 160. General Zoology Credit 4(3-2)
This is an introductory study of structure, physiology and phylogeny of the major animal phyla. The laboratory emphasizes the comparative anatomy and taxonomy of the animals. Prerequisite: BIOL 101. (F;S;SS)

BIOL 200. Introduction to Research Credit 3(3-0)
This course will offer an introduction to the basic principles of biological research. It will emphasize reading biological research literature, writing and verbal communications in scientific formats, the scientific method, and research ethics. The laboratory will emphasize hypothesis development, experimental design, data analysis, basic laboratory techniques, and the application of mathematics in the laboratory. Students are expected to leave the course with the ability to read primary literature, properly design and perform hypothesis-driven experiments, and effectively communicate and interpret results. Prerequisites: BIOL 102, CHEM 107, CHEM 117.

BIOL 205. Biology Orientation II Credit 1(1-0)
This course is a continuation of BIOL 105. Emphasis will be placed on effective study skills, career planning, professional development, university support services, and university policies and procedures. Students are expected to leave the course with an awareness of career options in the biological sciences, requirements for pursuing advanced studies, and job-seeking skills. This course is restricted to biology majors. Prerequisites: BIOL 105 or FRST 100. (F;S)

BIOL 210. Writing in Biology Credit 3(3-0)
This course will teach students the fundamentals of effective scientific writing. Instruction will focus primarily on the process of writing and be presented in two parts. Part I will teach students the rules of writing and how to write effectively, concisely, and clearly. Part II will emphasize scientific writing, including manuscript and grant preparation. Students will attend weekly lectures, during which they will complete writing assignments and editing exercises using prepared handouts and Criterion. Prerequisites: BIOL 102, Biology major. (F;S)

BIOL 220. Basic Microbiology Credit 4(2-4)
This is an introduction to the fundamentals of microbiology and the role of microorganisms in daily life. Special emphasis is placed on infectious diseases and immunology. The laboratory introduces students to the principles of microscopy, specimen preparation for light microscopy, aseptic techniques, cultivation techniques, and the biochemical activities of microorganisms. This course is not open to majors in Biology and Chemistry. Prerequisites: BIOL 100 or 101; CHEM 104 or its equivalent. (F;S;SS)

BIOL 221. General Microbiology Credit 4(2-4)
This is an introduction to the basic principles of microbiology. Microbial ultrastructure, growth, metabolism, molecular genetics, diversity, infectious diseases, and immunology will be discussed. The laboratory introduces students to the principles of microscopy, specimen preparation for light microscopy, aseptic techniques, cultivation techniques, and the biochemical activities of microorganisms. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, CHEM 107 and 117. (F;S;SS)

BIOL 240. General Botany Credit 4(2-4)
Plants as living organisms constitute an integral part of man's environment. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between plant structure and function, the diversity of organisms traditionally classified as plants, and plant physiology. The laboratory will emphasize plant structure and function. Prerequisite: BIOL 101. (F;S)

BIOL 260. Comparative Evolution of the Vertebrates Credit 4(2-4)
This course is a comparative study of chordate organ systems with rather detailed emphasis on the evolution and organogenesis of primitive chordates, dogfish shark and the cat. The laboratory emphasizes the comparative anatomy of representative chordates. Prerequisite: BIOL 101. (F;S)

BIOL 361. Human Anatomy and Physiology Credit 4(2-4)
This course is a study of the general structure and function of the human body. It is not open to Biology majors. The laboratory emphasizes human anatomy and major physiological processes. Prerequisites: BIOL 100, CHEM 104 or its equivalent. (F;SS)

BIOL 369. Human Anatomy Credit 3(2-2)
This course is a general introduction to human anatomy. The laboratory emphasizes the fundamental structure of the human body. This course is not open to Biology majors. Prerequisites: BIOL 100, CHEM 104 or its equivalent. (F;S;SS)

BIOL 370. Human Physiology Credit 3(2-2)
This is an introductory course with emphasis placed on basic principles and mechanisms of physiological functioning of body cells, tissues and systems. The laboratory emphasizes major physiological concepts. This course is not open to Biology majors. Prerequisite: BIOL 361 or 369. (F;S;SS)

BIOL 400. Field Biology Credit 3(2-2)
This course emphasizes how ecological knowledge is acquired and communicated. Fundamental techniques of sampling, numerical analysis, and the measurement of environmental factors will be studied using local aquatic and terrestrial communities. The laboratory emphasizes the study of local biomes. Prerequisite: BIOL 410. (DEMAND)

BIOL 401. Molecular Biology (Formerly BIOL 201) Credit 4(2-4)
This course examines the molecular events in cell function using molecular genetics, cell biology, and fundamental biochemistry; using both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. The laboratory will emphasize fundamental techniques used in molecular biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 101 and CHEM 107. (F)

BIOL 404. Pre Med Prep Seminar Credit 3(3-0)
This course exposes students to health professionals and their respective health care professions through seminars, field trips, internships, test preparations, medical ethics, and clinical research. Prerequisites: BIOL 102, CHEM 222, PHYS 226.

BIOL 405. Cell Biology Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines, in detail, the biology of the eukaryotic cell. The course will focus on the functions of the plasma membrane, organelles, and macromolecules within the cell. The course will also cover cellular growth, division, and cell death. The laboratory will include exercises to visualize the cell and to measure the physical and chemical properties of cellular macromolecules. Prerequisites: BIOL 221, CHEM 221.

BIOL 410. Ecology (Formerly BIOL 310) Credit 3(3-0)
This course surveys the major principles underlying the interactions between living organisms and their environment. Both plant and animal examples will be used to illustrate the basic ecological processes. Emphasis is placed on the characterization of different physical environments; ecosystem processes such as ecological energetics and nutrient cycling; and current organismal concepts of adaptation, niche, population dynamics, life-history phenomena, organismal interactions and community organization. Major environmental issues concerning humans and their cultures will also be presented. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, CHEM 107 and 117. (F)

BIOL 425. Evolutionary Biology Credit 3(3-0)
This course introduces students to the core concepts of organic evolution. It examines the basic evidence supporting organic evolution and emphasizes phylogenetic analysis, microevolutionary mechanisms of genetic change, and speciation. It also demonstrates the role of evolutionary biology in addressing the variety of phenomena observed in the organic world. Prerequisites: BIOL 102, BIOL 466. (F;S;SS)

BIOL 430. Plant Taxonomy Credit 4(2-4)
The fundamentals of taxonomy, botanical nomenclature and modern systematics are covered. An introduction to selected families and genera of vascular plants is included. The laboratory provides exposure to the common elements of the local flora and instruction in herbarium techniques. Prerequisite: BIOL 240. (DEMAND)

BIOL 432. Plant Physiology
This course is designed to develop a clear understanding of the basic physiological processes related to the structure, growth, and function of seed plants. The laboratory will emphasize major concepts in plant physiology. Prerequisites: BIOL 240 and CHEM 107. (DEMAND)

BIOL 450. Human Anatomy and Physiology I Credit 4(3-2)
This course, which provides a comprehensive study of the anatomy and physiology of the human body with an emphasis on health and medical issues, is designed for biology majors and/or students preparing for careers in the health professions. It will include an overview of organ systems, basic chemical organization, cell structure and function, and tissues; followed by the study of the skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. The laboratory includes studies of histology, physiology experiments, model studies, computer simulations, and multimedia presentations. Open to biology majors or permission of the instructor. Prerequisites: BIOL 102, CHEM 107.

BIOL 451. Human Anatomy and Physiology II Credit 4(3-2)
This course is a continuation of BIOL 450 and expands a comprehensive study of the anatomy and physiology of the human body with an emphasis on health and medical issues. Lecture topics include special senses, the endocrine system, cardiovascular and respiratory physiology, immunity, digestion, nutrition and metabolism, the urinary system, and the male and female reproductive systems. Laboratory work includes physiology experiments, model studies, computer simulations, and multimedia presentations. Prerequisites: BIOL 450.

BIOL 462. Introductory Cell Physiology Credit 4(2-4)
This course is a treatment at the molecular level of the fundamental processes of living cells. The biochemistry of cellular constituents, bioenergetics, intermediary metabolism, and the regulatory mechanisms of the cell will be discussed. The laboratory will include exercises on the measurement of hydrogen ion activity, physical and chemical properties of macromolecules and membranes, chromatography, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, cell fractionation studies, and the use of spectrophotometry in the identification and characterization of cellular macromolecules. Prerequisites: BIOL 401 and CHEM 222. (S)

BIOL 465. Histology Credit 4(2-4)
This course is a study of the microscopic anatomy of cells, tissues, and organs with special emphasis on normal histological structure and function. The laboratory emphasizes the major tissues. Prerequisite: BIOL 160. (DEMAND)

BIOL 466. Principles of Genetics Credit 3(2-2)
This course is a study of the traditional, classical areas of genetics as well as an introduction to gene action at the molecular level, including DNA and RNA structure, function and interactions in cellular systems. The laboratory features exercises with Drosophila. Prerequisite: BIOL 401 and CHEM 221. (F)

BIOL 468. Bioethics and Responsible Conduct in Science Credit 3(3-0)
This is an interactive course that engages students in the analysis of contemporary issues at the interface of science and ethics. It also covers policies and guidelines that are essential for the responsible conduct of biological and biomedical research. Course sessions include discussion periods, case studies, lectures and presentations by guest speakers with expertise in the field. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing. (F;S) 

BIOL 469. Biology, Technology, and Ethics II (Formerly BIOL 569) Credit 1(0-2)
This seminar course is concerned with ethical issues in biology. It is required for all pre-professional Biology majors. Prerequisite: BIOL 568. (S)

BIOL 498. Independent Study Credit 1(0-2)
Independent study under the direction of a faculty member. The submission of a written report is required. This course should be taken as a precursor to Undergraduate Research (BIOL 499) by students who plan to conduct their research on campus. Permission of instructor required. (F;S)

BIOL 499. Undergraduate Research Credit 3(0-6)
Biological research under the direction of a faculty member. The research may be carried out in the department or as part of an internship in an off-campus academic or industrial setting. A written paper, an abstract, and an oral presentation open to the public are required. Limited to Biology majors with a 3.0 GPA overall and in the major. The student should register for the course the semester the research will be completed or in the fall for research done the previous summer. Permission of instructor required. (F;S)

BIOL 501. Senior Project Credit 3(2-2)
This course will require that students develop an independent hypothesis-based project in the area of biology. Each student will be required to submit a written paper followed by a public defense of the research project. Literature review, experimental design, hypothesis testing, data analysis, scientific writing and presentation will be major elements of the course. Prerequisites: Biology major, senior classification. (F;S)

BIOL 530. Plant Pathology Credit 4(2-4)
This course is an introduction to the organisms and environmental conditions that cause disease in plants, the disease cycle, the effects of diseases on host plants, the nature of plant resistance, and strategies for controlling plant disease. A survey of major pathogens and plant diseases with an emphasis on important agricultural and horticultural plants is included. The laboratory emphasizes the identification of plant pathogens. Prerequisite: BIOL 240. (DEMAND)

 BIOL 561. Developmental Biology Credit 4(2-4)
This course is an introduction to the cellular and molecular aspects of development in animal and plant systems.  Laboratory exercises provide an introduction to techniques in classical experimental embryology and modern developmental biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 401, 260. BIOL 462 is recommended. (S)

BIOL 562. Cell and Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer Credit 4(2-4)
This course is an introduction to the cellular and molecular aspects of cancer biology in humans. This course will integrate basic scientific findings with clinical situations, emphasizing the importance of basic research in understanding and combating cancer.  Laboratory exercises will provide an introduction to classical and innovative cell signaling techniques. In addition to wet-lab exercises, novel case studies will be incorporated in order to strengthen critical thinking skills. Prerequisites: BIOL 401, BIOL 405.

Advanced Undergraduate and Graduate

BIOL 620. Food Microbiology (Formerly BIOL 420) Credit 4(2-4)
This is a survey of selected topics in food microbiology. The course will cover the metabolic pathways, organisms and processes involved with food production from fermented dairy products, vegetables, fruits and meats. Food spoilage, preservation, infection, and intoxication will also be discussed. The laboratory will introduce students to the microorganisms involved with food production and spoilage. Prerequisite: BIOL 220 or 221. (F)

BIOL 621. Soil Microbiology (Formerly BIOL 421) Credit 4(2-4)
This is a study of the major groups of soil organisms including their classification and relation to soil environments. The abundance, significance, and functions of soil microorganisms as well as their role in chemical cycles in soil will be discussed. The laboratory will emphasize methods for studying soil microbes. Prerequisite: BIOL 220 or 221. (S)

BIOL 630. Molecular Genetics Credit 3(3-0)
This course will examine DNA and RNA structure, function, and processing in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Various aspects of recombinant DNA technology will be examined. Prerequisites: BIOL 401 and 466. (DEMAND)

BIOL 631. Endocrine Physiology Credit 3(3-0)
This course will provide a basic introduction to endocrine function and include recent advances in the field of endocrinology. Emphasis will be placed on general aspects of endocrine physiology, the organization of the endocrine system, mechanisms of hormone action, and control of endocrine secretion. Prerequisites: BIOL 401 and 462. (DEMAND)

BIOL 640. Introduction to Bioinformatics and Genomics Research Credit 3(1-4)
The purpose of this course is to provide integrative experiences in computer and bench research in bioinformatics and genomic science. Students will acquire hands-on experiences with web-based software and the tools research scientists are using to study the genomes of plants, microbes, humans and other organisms. They will input experimental data into one or more of these databases to perform genetic analyses for making predictions about gene identity, structure, function, similarities and phylogenetic relationships. They will also use the databases to develop biochips, probes and primers for various laboratory applications. The integrative benchwork will involve testing results from database queries in the laboratory. This course will merge education and research and where possible, engage students in investigative activities that involve collaborations with scientists on and off the campus. Prerequisites: BIOL 401 and 466. (F;S)

BIOL 642. Special Problems in Biology Credit 3(2-2)
This course offers laboratory research projects on specific problems in biology for advanced students. The lecture portion of the course will emphasize central concepts in the research area. Prerequisite: BIOL 462, or 466 or permission of instructor and advisor. (DEMAND)

BIOL 665. Evolution Credit 3(3-0)
This course will emphasize the genetics of populations and sources of genetic variation; causes of genetic change in populations including natural selection; speciation; and the evolutionary history of life on earth. Prerequisites: BIOL 410 and 466. (DEMAND)

BIOL 667. Animal Physiology Credit 3(3-0)
This course will provide students with an understanding of the current state of animal physiology at the level of the whole organism and its component organs and organ systems. Emphasis will be placed on function as it relates to survival of organisms in natural environments and on the regulation of homeostatic mechanisms. Topics would include metabolism, temperature regulation, reproductive mechanisms, circulation, gaseous exchange, nutrient processing, osmoregulation and ionic balance. Prerequisites: BIOL 160 and 462. (DEMAND)

BIOL 668. Animal Behavior Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a study of the qualitative and quantitative difference between behavioral characteristics at different evolutionary level. Adapativeness of differences in behavior and the development of behavior will be emphasized. Prerequisites: BIOL 410 and 466. (DEMAND)

BIOL 671. Principles and Practices of Immunology Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a study of mammalian immune responses; particularly in humans. Special emphasis will be placed on the physiology, genetics, and regulation of immune responses. Interrelationships between nonspecific and specific immune reactions, humoral and cell-mediated immunity, effector cells, and diseases are also stressed along with research and diagnostic methodologies. Prerequisites: BIOL 221, 466; CHEM 221, 222. (S)

BIOL 681. Statistical Methods for Research Credit 3(3-0)
Introductory statistical methods for biological research including: descriptive statistics, probability distributions (binomial, normal, student’s t-distribution), parametric and non-parametric hypothesis tests, confidence intervals, chi-square tests/contingency table analysis, introduction to one-way ANOVA, and bivariate regression. Laboratory exercises will provide the student with experience using statistical software packages for data analysis. Prerequisite: MATH 224 or 231. (F;S)

BIOL 690. Introduction to Epidemiology Credit 3(3-0)
This course will include the basic principles and methods of epidemiology and applications of epidemiology to public health and clinical practice. Topics include measuring the occurrence of disease, identifying  the cause of disease, estimation of risk, and evaluation of the validity and reliability of diagnostic and screening tests. Prerequisite: MATH 224 or BIOL 681 or permission of instructor. (F;S)


David W. Aldridge
Professor and Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences
B.S., M.A., University of Texas-Arlington; Ph.D., Syracuse University; Postdoctoral, Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratories

Goldie Smith Byrd
Nathan F. Sims Endowed Professor and Dean
B.S., North Carolina A&T State University; Ph.D. and Postdoctoral, Meharry Medical College

Roy Coomans
Associate Professor
B.S., Eckerd College; Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Gregory D. Goins
Associate Professor
B.S., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; M.S., Ph.D., North Carolina State University; Postdoctoral, University of Minnesota

Andrew G. Goliszek
Associate Professor
B.S., University of West Florida; M.S., Ph.D., Utah State University; Postdoctoral, Wake Forest University

Jian Han
Assistant Professor
B.S., M.S., Nankai University; M.S. University of Hawaii at Manoa; Ph.D., The Pennsylvania State University

Scott Harrison
Assistant Professor
B.S., Ph.D., Michigan State University; Postdoctorals, Michigan State University and Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis

Vinaya A. Kelkar
Research Assistant Professor
B.S., Gujarat University-India; M.S., Old Dominion University; Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Perry V. Mack
Adjunct Professor
B.S., South Carolina State College; M.S., North Carolina Central University; Ed.D., Rutgers University, Extramural Associate, N.I.H.-Bethesda

Patrick Martin
Associate Professor
B.S., Virginia Union University; Ph.D., Postdoctoral, University of Virginia.

Perpetua Muganda
B.S., Lock Haven State College; M.S., Howard University; Ph.D., Indiana University School of Medicine; Postdoctoral, Lineberger Cancer Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Robert H. Newman
Assistant Professor
B.A., McDaniel College; Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University; Postdoctoral, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Elimelda Ongeri
Assistant Professor
B.S., Egerton University; M.S. University of Nairobi; M.S., Ph.D. Purdue University; Postdoctoral, Pennsylvania State University

Cailisha Petty
Adjunct Instructor
B.S., M.S., North Carolina A&T State University

Mary A. Smith
Professor and Chairperson
B.S., M.S. Morgan State University; Ph.D. Cornell University; Postdoctorals, Cornell University and Michigan State University

Checo J. Rorie
Assistant Professor
B.S., Clark Atlanta University; Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Postdoctorals, New York University and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Angela M. White
B.S., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; M.S., North Carolina A&T State University

C. Dinitra White
Associate Professor
B.S., Johnson C. Smith University, P.h.D., Wayne State University, Postdoctoral, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Joseph J. Whittaker
Associate Professor
A.B., Talladega College; Ph.D., Meharry Medical College; Postdoctorals, Purdue University and Washington University