Department of Liberal Studies

http://www.ncat.edu/cahss/departments/libs/

Damion Waymer, Chairperson

OBJECTIVES

The Department of Liberal Studies (with Foreign Languages and Philosophy) offers interdisciplinary degrees designed to prepare students for employment, civic participation and life-long learning in a complex, global environment. A Liberal Studies Bachelor of Arts degree requires students to complete 120 semester hours in designated areas of competency. The program seeks to provide students with a solid liberal arts education. The degree affords students a breadth of academic experience as well as depth in a particular concentration field. The broad-based interdisciplinary nature of the Liberal Studies curriculum provides the knowledge base, communication expertise and analytical skills appropriate for graduate work, entrepreneurial endeavors and numerous careers and occupations in the public and private sectors of the economy. Currently, the Department of Liberal Studies (with Foreign Languages and Philosophy) offers concentration options in African-American Studies Applied Cultural Thought, and Pre-Law. The department also offers degrees that are a part of the   Aggies at the Goal Line online degree completion program. The Aggies at the Goal Line Program allows students, with at least 60 completed college credits, who are returning to college after a break, an opportunity to complete a Bachelors of Arts degree in one of three concentration areas. This fully online degree completion option affords non-traditional students the flexibility to continue career and family responsibilities while earning college credits. The Department of Liberal Studies, in collaboration with Elon University School of Law, also offers an Accelerated Pathway to Law School Program (APLS). This major requires formal admission to the program, is open to incoming high school seniors, and is reserved for exceptional academically motivated students to earn a Bachelor of Arts and Juris Doctorate law degrees in five and a half years.

DEGREES OFFERED

Liberal Studies (African American Studies) – Bachelor of Arts (Curriculum Guide)
Liberal Studies (Applied Cultural Thought) – Bachelor of Arts (Curriculum Guide)
Liberal Studies (Pre-Law) – Bachelor of Arts (Curriculum Guide)

MINORS OFFERED

French
Philosophy
Spanish

GENERAL PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

The admission of students to the Liberal Studies undergraduate degree program is based upon general admission requirements of the University. Transfer into the Liberal Studies Program requires a minimum 2.0 cumulative grade point average for most of the concentrations. Pre-Law requires a 2.5 grade point average. A minimum grade of a “C-” is required for all concentration courses and core curriculum requirements.

FOREIGN LANGUAGE PLACEMENT EXAMINATION

A foreign language placement examination will be administered to entering freshmen whose programs have a language requirement and who have taken at least two consecutive years of the same foreign language in high school. The placement test is web-based an can be accessed at: http://webcape.byuhtrsc.org/?acct=ncat. Students will need a Banner ID for taking the test. The highest level in which a student can be placed is the Intermediate II. A student cannot satisfy a language requirement by taking this examination. The foreign language placement examination will be given in order to place students in the appropriate levels only.

MINORS IN FRENCH, PHILOSOPHY AND SPANISH

A minor may be achieved in French or Spanish by students who complete a minimum of 18 semester hours in French or Spanish.

MINOR IN FRENCH

Students must successfully complete eighteen (18) semester hours in French courses. A minimum of twelve (12) of the eighteen semester hours must be in courses at the 200-level or above. A student must complete at least twenty-four (24) academic credit hours before declaring a minor, and must have a GPA of 2.0. A student may not have more than two minors. The minor will be printed on the student’s transcript but not on the student’s diploma.

Recommended Course Sequence

  • FREN 101
  • FREN 102
  • FREN 201
  • FREN 304
  • FREN Elective

MINOR IN PHILOSOPHY

Students must successfully complete eighteen (18) semester hours in philosophy coursework at the 200-level or above with a “C” minimum grade in each course. The minor will be printed on the student’s transcript but not on the student’s diploma.

MINOR IN SPANISH

Students must successfully complete eighteen (18) semester hours in Spanish courses. A minimum of twelve (12) of the eighteen semester hours must be in courses at the 200-level or above. A student must complete at least twenty-four (24) academic credit hours before declaring a minor, and must have a GPA of 2.0. A student may not have more than two minors. The minor will be printed on the student’s transcript but not on the student’s diploma.

Recommended Course Sequence

  • SPAN 101
  • SPAN 102
  • SPAN 201
  • SPAN 202
  • SPAN 301
  • SPAN 302
  • SPAN 303
  • SPAN 304
  • SPAN 305

STUDY ABROAD

The Department of Liberal Studies and Foreign Languages encourages all students to study abroad. The Office of International Programs, (336) 334-7104, provides opportunities for A&T students to study in over 100 countries around the world while earning academic credit towards graduation.

COURSE DESCRIPTIONS IN LIBERAL STUDIES

LIBS 100. Global Understanding Credit 3(3-0)
This course allows students to learn about other cultures in a face-to-face environment without having to leave their classroom. It is designed to employ interactive technologies giving students the opportunity to communicate with students in different countries in “real time”. The cultural exchange is based on both written and oral communication between classrooms of students in two different nations using videoconferencing and other digital communication tools within the classroom environment and beyond. Cross-listed with GSCP 100.

LIBS 200. Introduction to Liberal Studies Credit 3(3-0)
This is a course that provides students with broad knowledge and a strong comprehensive understanding of ethics and civil engagement; that exposes the interconnected relationships among the disciplines, society and humanity. This course surveys each concentration offered in the Liberal Studies Department.

LIBS 201. Introduction to Race, Class and Culture Credit 3(3-0)
This course explores the history and theories of race and class and their impact on culture.

LIBS 202. Introduction to African American Studies Credit 3(3-0)
This course is designed to provide freshmen and sophomores with a critical understanding of the field of African-American studies. The course will be taught from an interdisciplinary perspective, emphasizing critical thinking and communication skills.

LIBS 203. Introduction to Women’s Studies Credit 3(3-0)
This course is designed to provide Women’s Studies concentrators with a critical understanding of the role of women in the U.S. and global economy, society and politics. It will emphasize critical thinking and communication skills through reading, writing and oral presentations.

LIBS 209. History, Literary Connections and Social Relevance of Hip-Hop Credit 3(3-0)
This course expands the course offerings of two existing LIBS Concentrations: African-American Studies and Race, Class and Culture. It draws from several disciplines within the Social Sciences and Humanities and contributes to students’ ability to critically analyze the interrelationships between popular culture and the large society.

LIBS 220. Race, Class and Environmental Quality Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the relationships between race, class and environmental quality within the context of a global economy that seeks to maximize profits while minimizing responsibility. It also examines the concept of environmental justice as a means to restore positive connections within communities between environmental use and environmental quality.

LIBS 221. Genetics, Race and Society Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the historical development of theories of “race” in the Western world. It provides the student with a basic understanding of the principles of evolutionary/population biology, genetics, and taxonomy as they relate to biological and social conceptions of race.

LIBS 223. African-American Culture Through Sports Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines how sports have historically formed and currently shape the contours of African-American culture. Particular attention is given to such questions as the ethical dimension of segregation, the locus of gender equity, cultural images, and their potential effects for African-American athletes and the African-American community.

LIBS 225. Race, Crime and Social Injustice Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines how social structure impacts the race-crime relationship in terms of theory, policy and practice. It explores the phenomenon from multiple perspectives, including those involved in the criminal justice process. Students are encouraged to think critically about the social construction of race and social class in crime and crime control.

LIBS 227. Race, Class and Culture in South Africa Credit 3(3-0)
This course acquaints students with the economic, social, political and cultural forces that have shaped contemporary South Africa. It explores the role of race, class, gender and culture during the apartheid and post-apartheid eras.

LIBS 230. The HIV/AIDS Crisis in Africa Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the economic, social, political and cultural forces that shape the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa. It explores the reasons for Africa's high prevalence rates, the gendered nature of the pandemic, and the impact of the disease on development and on children.

LIBS 235. African-American Anti-Imperialism Credit 3(3-0)
This course addresses African-American political interventions and debates against European and U.S. colonialism and imperialism during the first three-quarters of the twentieth century. It also examines the parallel development of the U.S. civil rights movement and African-American support for African independence movements.

LIBS 236. Africana Thought and Practice Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines in depth a broad range of Black thought of scholars/activists, from W.E.B. DuBois and Marcus Garvey to Leopold Senghor and Frantz Fanon.

LIBS 241. Black Situation in TV Comedies Credit 3(3-0)
This course will provide students with the skills to critically analyze black situation comedies, from the 1950s to the present. The course will be taught from an interdisciplinary perspective (literature, history, political science, sociology, law) and emphasize critical thinking and communication skills.

LIBS 242. The Political Economy of African Americans Credit 3(3-0)
This course is an analytical examination of how political and economic forces interact to influence African American wealth. The course examines traditional African American products (i.e. music as a commodity) possessing a user or a value and an objective of production (possessing an exchange-value). Current political and economic trends will be juxtaposed with historical expropriations and exploitations. Prerequisite: LIBS 202.

LIBS 243. African Americans and Education Credit 3(3-0)
This course will explore the complex issues of education for African Americans within a 21st century context as a manifestation of The Mis-Education of the Negro, as scribed by Dr. Carter G. Woodson in 1933. Students will learn the role of American schooling and compare public education, private education, and the privatization of education.

LIBS 244. The African American Male Credit 3(3-0)
This course explores the social, cultural, and political dynamics that impact the experience of the African American male in the United States. The course will focus on a variety of Black male issues from post-slavery to the 21st century that include role identification, the criminal justice system, media representations, and the educational system. Students will learn the social construction of masculinity as defined by dominant culture and the effect on the African American male.

LIBS 245. Global Views: Black Press in the Americas Credit 3(3-0)
This interdisciplinary course will review issues that appeared throughout the last century in the press of Black communities in the non-English speaking countries of the Americas. It will examine articles in countries where Afro-descendents constitute a large number such as Brazil and the Dominican Republic, as well as those countries where Blacks are a small minority such as Argentina, Uruguay, and Bolivia. Students will compare conditions in Latin America to those described in the Black press of the United States. Prerequisite: LIBS 200.

LIBS 301. Ethno-Nationalism and the Reconstruction of Nations Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines how the breakup of the USSR led to the rise of ethno-nationalism in the process of national reconstruction. Exploring the myths, symbols and histories of those competing populations within the Soviet Union or its power, we discover a paradigm that applies to the wider postcolonial world as well.

LIBS 302. Media Analysis Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the shaping of information in popular media, with special emphasis on the creation of news. Examining institutional configurations and conglomeration, it focuses on the role of news media within national discourses, on the shaping of ideological consensus and the marginalization of dissent. It asks questions about the limitations of political discourse, about bias and objectivity, about how news is defined, presented, and disseminated.

LIBS 303. Consumer Culture Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the creation of consumer culture during the last two centuries. It looks at the development of advertising, public relations, mass marketing, and the construction of consumer consciousness. It also considers the consequences of global consumerism upon the environment, cultural tradition, human social relations and economic conditions.

LIBS 304. The American South Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines mythologies and realities of the American South: the antebellum period, the Civil War, Reconstruction, the Civil Rights era, and the New South. It looks at how these historical moments have been written and rewritten, in academic and popular discourses, in response to racial beliefs and ideological needs. It considers the South as a geographical, social, and cultural entity and as an important element within the shaping of an American national mythos.

LIBS 305. Race and Class in Caribbean Culture Credit 3(3-0)
This course will examine the ethnic, racial and cultural diversity of the Caribbean, including the impact of foreign cultures on the area, and the export of its unique cultural forms to the global society.

LIBS 306. Gender and Technology Credit 3(3-0)
This course will explore technology’s interaction with the concept of gender and how gender is embodied in technologies, and conversely, how technologies shape societal notions of gender. Students will critically assess the gender relations produced in areas such as entertainment and games, work, identity, education, culture, globalism, race and ethnicity.

LIBS 307. Food and The Global Community Credit 3(3-0)
This course uses multidisciplinary perspectives to examine the connections between food and human life ways. Focusing on varied ethnic food traditions and people around the world, this course will explore 1) the interplay of class and gender in the preparation of food, 2) the role of political and economic power in the accessibility and distribution of food, and 3) the religious and cultural symbolism of eating.

LIBS 308. Historical, Social, and Cultural Perspectives of Technology Credit 3(3-0)
This course explores the interrelationships between the human race and technology, the range of determinism between the two, and the possible paths for technology and humans in the global world. Global perspectives -- including Eastern and western, Northern and Southern -- will be covered in the course.

LIBS 309. Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Extraordinary Violence Credits 3(3-0)
This course composes a critical study of the notion of "evil" by considering how the term has been employed historically to explain and sometimes justify radical violence such as genocide. It will consider the multi-disciplinary spectrum of theories that seek to explain how ordinary people come to participate in extraordinary acts of brutality and mass murder of their fellow human beings.

LIBS 310. The Historical Origins of Environmental Crisis Credit 3(3-0)
This course will deal with man's changing philosophical and technological relationship with his natural environment since the start of the Industrial Revolution. Cross-listed with HIST 307.

LIBS 311. The Idea of Africa Credits 3(3-0)
This course will provide students with the skills to critically analyze the way Africa has been portrayed historically in the West, in fiction, the academy, books, magazines, film, television and other popular media. The development of critical thinking skills in written and oral communication are at the core of this course which asks students to rethink common assumptions, perceptions and stereotypes.

LIBS 312. Gender and Development in Africa Credits 3(3-0)
This course examines women's roles in African economies, the gendered nature of legal rights under customary law, political participation, female genital mutilation, and the impact of conflict, war, genocide and the HIV/AIDS pandemic on African women.

LIBS 315. Doing Culture Credits 3(3-0)
This course examines the significance of culture in human societies. It assumes that culture is more than the objects of cultural production. The course explores how culture is the continual construction and reconstruction of social, economic and political institutions.

LIBS 313. Human Rights: An Interdisciplinary and Global Approach Credit 3(3-0)
What are “human rights”? Who defines this concept and sets its standards? Has the concept changed over time? This course takes an interdisciplinary and global approach to the study human rights. It looks at specific “human rights” violations of our time, including honor killing, bride burning, genital mutilation, death by stoning, torture and child labor. Students will learn about the social, cultural, economic, political and legal contexts within which certain practices deemed human rights violations take place and be confronted with the ultimate question of “Can I judge the practices of people living in other cultures”?

LIBS 314. Being Human Credit 3(3-0)
This course represents a “workshop” or “think tank” style exploration that considers a spectrum of definitions of human being, challenging each for its strengths and weaknesses for promoting the full morally-rich human life, designated by the ancients as “human flourishing”. Passages from ancient Greek, Roman, existentialist, and postmodern Jewish philosophy, Christian, Hebrew, Muslim and Buddhist scriptures, and modern rationalist/scientific definitions will be considered and compared, with the objective of determining which definitions have the potential to be most morally edifying. The course will address such questions as whether gender and race are essential or secondary qualities of human being, and how ideologies of individualism and communalism affect human modes of being-in-the-world.

LIBS 315. World Views on Death and Dying Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines issues and concepts involved in death and dying across societies and cultures from the perspectives of the social, natural and physical sciences, and the humanities. Issues such as rituals, artificial life-support, euthanasia, hospice care, and suicide are examined in Western and non-Western cultures. Prerequisite: LIBS 200.

LIBS 316. Hip-Hop Discourse Credit 3(3-0)
This course will analyze, critique, and discuss the literature and critical discourses of the most current theoretical, political, and social dialogue/texts that provide a framework for class discussion and writing assignments. Some of the major areas of focus are as follows: the major movements and themes of hip-hop; the relationship between the predominant culture and hip-hop; the new Black Renaissance - hip-hop culture literature; and the commercialization of hip-hop. Cross-listed with ENGL 316.

LIBS 317. The Films of Spike Lee Credit 3(3-0)
This course takes a critical analysis approach to the study of the work of Spike Lee. It examines the representations of race, class, gender, and sexuality in Lee's “joints” from an interdisciplinary perspective. The course looks critically at Lee’s work within the broad historical framework of African American cultural history and explores Lee’s engagement with numerous controversial social, political, and economic issues in American society.

LIBS 318. Conflict and Its Transformation: Theory Credit 3(3-0)
This course educates students in Conflict Theory, a range of strategies for navigating diverse differences, and it offers an approach for negotiating peaceful solutions to business, economic, social, and political problems in both our local communities and global societies.

LIBS 319. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) Credit 3(3-0)
Students in this course will critically study language as a social practice using a multidisciplinary approach. Critical Discourse Analysis is taught as a research methodology for language structures and it explores the relationship among these structures within cultural and situational contexts. Prerequisite: LIBS 200.

LIBS 320. Doing Culture Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the significance of culture in human societies. It assumes that culture is more than the objects of cultural production. The course explores how culture is the continual construction and reconstruction of social, economic and political institutions.

LIBS 321. One World Culture Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the concept of one world culture from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. The key questions the course will address include: Is one culture world emerging? If so, what are its advantages and disadvantages for individuals, communities, and nation states? How will human identities change with the emergence of one world culture? Students will learn how one world culture is changing the social, economic, legal and political contexts of our lives.

LIBS 322. World Religions and Society Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines interactions between religion and societies as factors influencing the formation of community, the breakdown of community, and reconciliation within and between communities. Contemporary, historical, and nonwestern examples will be explored. Interrelations between religion and societies will be explored from different disciplinary perspectives, including those of psychology, history, sociology, philosophy, and evolutionary biology.

LIBS 330. Law and Humanities Credit 3(3-0)
This course is an interdisciplinary topical course in legal concepts and issues and the ways in which these have been depicted in the humanities: literature, film, the arts, music and popular culture. Some of the topics that will be examined are: Freedom and the Law, Justice and Equality, Freedom and Responsibility, and Justice, Rights, and the Body. Students will explore the impact these various ways of depicting the law and legal concepts have on our understanding of ourselves, our communities, and the nation state.

LIBS 335. Disparities in Public Health Care: The Effects of Race, Gender and Class Credit 3(3-0)
This course is designed to examine the disparities that exist among the categories of race, gender, and class in relationship to health care. The course focuses on six areas of major health inequities, to include infant mortality, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and immunizations.

LIBS 398. Cultural Foundations I Credit 3(3-0)
This course is the introductory level of understanding different cultures from a global perspective and learning what “globalization” means in various contexts to include explorations of the arts (literature, music, and entertainment industry), social sciences, and ethical reasoning. Prerequisites: LIBS 200 or consent of instructor.

LIBS 399. Cultural Foundations II Credit 3(3-0)
This course is the intermediate level of cultural foundations from a global perspective: through literature, music, the entertainment industry, the social sciences, and ethical reasoning. Students will compare and contrast world-view/perceptions and critically analyze depictions of Americans. Prerequisites: LIBS 200, 398, or consent of instructor.

LIBS 400. Passion Politics: Beyond bell hooks Credit 3(3-0)
Passionate Politics: Beyond bell hooks is a course that centers on feminist theory, its reinterpretation, and its application. It allows students to differentiate feminist perspectives to better understand the diversity of feminist thought. Prerequisite: LIBS 200.

LIBS 401. War and Culture Credit 3(3-0)
This course investigates the nature of war, its causes and consequences, its depiction in news accounts, memoirs, literary texts, and popular media. This course asks questions about the function of war economically and ideologically. It considers the intersection of war with race and gender. It also considers the ways war is commonly represented within national discourses.

LIBS 402. Historical Memory Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the nature of historical truth within a mass-mediated culture and against a prevailing postmodern skepticism. It also looks at the processes by which historical events are defined and represented. It asks questions about the intersections of nationalism and history, about the determining power of school curricula, textbooks, museums, academic experts, and popular media.

LIBS 403. Black Feminist Thought Credit 3(3-0)
Black Feminist Thought is a course about the determination for women's empowerment and social justice in America from slavery to the 21st century. It examines feminism and its multiple meanings and controversies and identifies cross- generational themes and tensions. Prerequisite: LIBS 200.

LIBS 404. Reclaiming Democracy Credit 4(3-1)
This multi-institutional. interdisciplinary course examines and models democracy by bringing together students and faculty from local colleges and universities for experiential learning projects within the greater Greensboro community. Students will explore public policy. governance, citizen engagement, economic justice and other issues at the microcosm level. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing.

LIBS 406. Cultural Foundations III Credit 3(3-0)
This course is the advanced level of cultural foundations from a global perspective. This course will identify political, social, legal, and economic impact(s) of transnational corporations; examine concepts of industrialization/urbanization along with concepts of colonialism/de-colonialism/and neocolonialism; and, present an epistemology of mind, language, gender, and sexual identity. Prerequisite: LIBS 399.

LIBS 407. Cultivating Humanity Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines Socratic reason and cosmopolitanism grounded in the classical origins of the Western tradition. Through cross-cultural study and application, students will construct a “world-citizen” value set derived from the philosophy of Martha Nussbaum and apply geography, world religion, world history, and the humanities to examine creative solutions to alleviate social ills. Prerequisite: LIBS 200.

LIBS 408. Law, Humanities & the Social Sciences Credit 3(3-0)
This interdisciplinary topical course examines legal concepts and issues as depicted in the humanities and the social sciences. Topics include freedom and the law, justice and equality, and freedom and responsibility. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing. Cross listed with PHIL 408.

LIBS 409. Science and Religion Credit 3(3-0)
This course explores the relationship between science and religion from an interdisciplinary perspective through readings, films. and case studies. Are scientific and religious ways of knowing compatible, conflictory, or how might these disciplines coexist and influence each other? Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing. Cross listed with PHIL 409.

LIBS 475. Senior Seminar/Capstone Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a seminar for seniors to engage with critical theory and apply it to contemporary issues and problems. Concrete evidence of multidimensional and integrated student knowledge, skills, and abilities are documented as students are taught electronic portfolio preparation for career prospects and postgraduate education. Prerequisites: LIBS 200, LIBS 300, Liberal Studies major w/senior standing.

LIBS 497. Reading and Writing Cultural Critiques Credit 3(3-0)
This writing intensive course emphasizes both critical analysis and writing, with particular attention on writing for a specific setting and audience.

LIBS 494. Independent Study I  Credit 3(3-0)
This course is designed for students to conduct advanced research and study on a special topic.

LIBS 496. Independent Study II Credit 3(3-0)
This course is designed for students to conduct advanced research and study on a special topic. Prerequisite: LIBS 200, 300.

LIBS 497. Reading and Writing Cultural Critiques Credit 3(3-0)
This writing intensive course is intended to prepare students to write the cultural critique -- popular and academic. The course emphasizes both critical analysis and writing, with particular attention to writing for a specific setting and audience. By the end of the course, students should be able to produce a conference paper or publishable essay.

COURSE DESCRIPTIONS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES

FRENCH

FREN 101. Elementary French I* Credit 3(3-0)
This is a course for beginners which emphasizes the four language skills-listening, speaking, reading, and writing. (F;S)

FREN 102. Elementary French II* Credit 3(3-0)
This is a continuation of FOLA 100 with further emphasis placed on the oral-aural approach. Prerequisite: FREN 101 or equivalent. (F;S)

FREN 201. Intermediate French I* Credit 3(3-0)
This course consists of a brief review of pronunciation. Grammar is stressed with emphasis on cultural readings. Prerequisites: FREN 101 and 102, or two units of high school French. (F)

FREN 202. Intermediate French II* Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a continuation of FREN 201. Stress is placed on grammar, cultural reading and conversation. Prerequisite: FREN 201 or equivalent. (S)

FREN 301. French Composition Credit 3(3-0)
This intensive review focuses on refining, through written expression, the grammar structures learned in previous courses. The course will prepare students for formal, academic writing, while expanding their vocabulary and polishing their style. It is conducted in French. Prerequisite: FREN 202. (F;S)

FREN 302. French Grammar I Credit 3(3-0)
An intensive study of French grammar, this course pays particular attention to the more challenging structures of the French verb system, such as the perfect and the imperfect, the subjunctive, and the sequence of tenses in multiple-clause constructions. It is conducted in French. Prerequisite: FREN 201. (F;S)

FREN 303. French Grammar II Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a continuation of FREN 302. French Grammar I. Among  the topics examined are: the passive voice, impersonal constructions, relative clauses, adverbial clauses, and uses or por and para. It is conducted in French. Prerequisites: FREN 302 or consent of instructor. (F;S)

FREN 304. Phonetics Credit 3(3-0)
This is a course in French sounds and diction. It is required of all students majoring and minoring in French, and recommended for those who wish to improve pronunciation. Prerequisites:FREN 201 and 202. (F;S)

FREN 305. Intermediate French Conversation Credit 3(3-0)
This course provides practice in oral French, focusing principally on the real-life contexts of social, commercial and workplace settings. In addition, practice is provided in discussing topics of current interest, using national and international media as springboards for conversation. The course is conducted in French. It may be taken simultaneously with FREN 202. Prerequisites: FREN 201-202 or consent of instructor. (F;S)

FREN 306. Advanced French Conversation Credit 3(3-0)
This course offers students intensive training in self-expression and an opportunity to improve pronunciation, diction, reading and speaking. Prerequisite: FREN 305. (F;S)

FREN 400. Introduction to Literary Analysis Credit 3(3-0)
This course teaches the basic techniques of literary analysis, as well as the terminology and concepts used in understanding a variety of literary genres. Students will read both Caribbean and Afro-French texts. It is conducted in French. Prerequisites: FREN 202 and FREN 301. (F;S)

FREN 401. Afro-French Expression Credit 3(3-0)
The course is designed to provide the student with a general knowledge of Afro-French literature in its many manifestations throughout Francophone Africa and the Caribbean. Representative texts will be read within the context of the socio-historic and cultural influences that have shaped the black experience in Francophone Africa. The course is conducted in French. (F;S)

FREN 402. Survey of French Literature I - The Middle Ages through the Enlightenment Credit 3(3-0)
A study of representative works and literary movements in French literature from the Middle Ages through the Enlightenment. Students will learn to use the methods and language of literary analysis. Prerequisite: FREN 400. (F;S)

FREN 403. Survey of French Literature II - Romanticism through the New Novel Credit 3(3-0)
A study of representative works and literary movements in French literature of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Students will learn to use the methods and language of literary analysis. Prerequisite: FREN 400 and FREN 402 or consent of instructor. (F;S)

FREN 404. French Civilization Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a general survey of the history of France, with emphasis on the social, political and economic development designed to give students an understanding of present conditions and events. A detailed study of such French institutions as art, music, and education is included. This course is also offered in conjunction with reports of collateral readings. (F;S)

FREN 406. Special Topics Credit 3(3-0)
Selected topics in French. The topics will vary from semester to semester. Descriptions will be available from academic advisors. May be repeated for credit when topic changes. Prerequisite: FREN 400. (F;S)

FREN 428. Special Topics Credit 3(3-0)
Second Lan Teach and Learning. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. (F;S)

FREN 452. Introduction to Business French Credit 3(3-0)
This course will enhance the student’s ability to communicate in a multilingual environment. It will equip students with the necessary tools to conduct international business transactions. The course is conducted in French. Prerequisites: FREN 201 and 202. (F;S)

FREN 453. Advanced French for Business Credit 3(3-0)
This course completes FREN 452, instructing students in more advanced vocabulary and grammar, as well as offering further practice employing French in a business context. The course is conducted in French. Prerequisite: FREN 452.

FREN 456.  French Studies Abroad Credit 3(3-0)
Primarily intended for transfer credit earned abroad in courses on French language, civilization, or culture. 1-16 credits per semester. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. (F;S)

FREN 457. French Conversation and Phonetics Credit 3(3-0)
This course completes FREN 305, Intermediate French Conversation. Current techniques and their uses in attaining mastery in oral French. Prerequisites: FREN 305 or consent of instructor. (F;S)

FREN 458. Selected Tales, Legends and Proverbs on Francophone Africa Credit 3(3-0)
This course on the Francophone tales of Africa will introduce the student to African culture and oral literary thoughts. Based on the analysis of these tales and proverbs, students will gain a better understanding of the African family structure and social organization. The course is conducted in French. Prerequisite: FREN 305. (F;S)

FREN 459. Selected Poetry and Prose from Francophone Writers of Central Africa Credit 3(3-0)
The study of poetry and prose from francophone writers of Central Africa is an advanced francophone course. Its goal is to give the students a solid knowledge through analysis of poetry and prose of African lyricism, politics, and philosophical themes. The course is conducted in French. Prerequisites: FREN 305 and 306. (F;S)

FREN 460. French Literature of the Seventeenth Century Credit 3(3-0)
This course presents Classicism through masterpieces of Comeille, Racine, Moliere and other authors of the “Golden Period” in French letters. (F;S)

FREN 461. French Literature in the Eighteenth Century Credit 3(3-0)
This course presents the life and works of Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau as the main emphasis. (F;S)

FREN 462. French Literature of the Nineteenth Century Credit 3(3-0)
The great literary currents of the nineteenth century Romanticism and Realism will be studied. (F;S)

FREN 463. The French Theatre Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a thorough study of the French theatre from the Middle Ages to the present. (F;S)

FREN 464. The French Novel Credit 3(3-0)
The novel from the Seventeenth Century to the present will be studied. (F;S)

FREN 465. French Syntax Credit 3(3-0)
This course is designed to teach grammar on the advanced level. (F;S)

FREN 466. Contemporary French Literature Credit 3(3-0)
This course deals with the chief writers and literary currents from 1900 to the present. (F;S)

FREN 485. Selected Afro-French Poets Credit 3(3-0)
This course is the study and analysis of the most representative works of Afro-French poets of South America, Africa and the Caribbean. Prerequisite: FREN 305, 306 or consent of instructor. (F;S)

FREN 490. Independent Study in Foreign Languages Credit 3(3-0)
This course includes independent study and research in a special area of the foreign language. Prerequisites: FREN 201 or 304. (F;S)

FREN 492. Seminar in Foreign Languages Credit 3(3-0)
This course includes discussion of readings and special topics in French. Presentations from students, faculty and guest lecturers will supplement the discussion. Prerequisites: FREN 202 or 304. (F;S)
*Students are required to purchase supplemental materials for this course.

SPANISH

SPAN 101. Elementary Spanish I* Credit 3(3-0)
This course for beginners focuses on the four language skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Students will be asked to take the Spanish Placement Test. The course is conducted primarily in Spanish. (F;S;SS)

SPAN 102. Elementary Spanish II* Credit 3(3-0)
This course is the continuation of SPAN 101. It continues practice in the four language skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Students will be asked to take the Spanish Placement Test. The course is conducted primarily in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 101 or consent of instructor. (F;S;SS)

SPAN 201. Intermediate Spanish I* Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a review of elementary Spanish and offers further study of vocabulary, grammar, and syntax. Emphasis is placed on improving the four basic skills of language acquisition. Intermediate-level readings in literature and culture, as well as a service-learning component, complement the study of language. Students will be asked to take the Spanish Placement Test. The course is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 102 or consent of instructor. (F;S;SS)

SPAN 202. Intermediate Spanish II* Credit 3(3-0)
The sequel to SPAN 201, this course reviews and completes the basic study of Spanish grammar. Practice continues with the four skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Intermediate-level readings in literature and culture, as well as a service-learning component, complement the study of language. Students will be asked to take the Spanish Placement Test. The course is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 201 or consent of instructor. (F;S;SS)

SPAN 203. Elementary Spanish Conversation Composition* Credit 3(3-0)
This course begins the Spanish conversation sequence, instructing students in more advanced vocabulary and grammar. Students will develop their conversational skills at different levels (interpersonal, presentations) on a variety of literary and cultural topics. Students will be asked to take the Spanish Placement Test. The course is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisites: SPAN 102 or consent of instructor. (F;S)

SPAN 301. Spanish Composition Credit 3(3-0)
This intensive review focuses on refining, through written expression, the grammar structures learned in previous courses. The course will prepare students for formal, academic writing, while expanding their vocabulary and polishing their style. It is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 202. (F;S)

SPAN 302. Spanish Grammar I Credit 3(3-0)
An intensive study of Spanish grammar, this course pays particular attention to the more challenging structures of the Spanish verb system, such as the preterit and the imperfect, the subjunctive, and the sequence of tenses in multiple-clause constructions. It is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 201. (F;S)

SPAN 303. Spanish Grammar II Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a continuation of SPAN 302, Spanish Grammar I. Among the topics examined are: The passive voice, impersonal constructions, relative clauses, adverbial clauses, and uses of por and para. It is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 302 or consent of instructor. (F;S)

SPAN 304. Spanish Phonetics Credit 3(3-0)
This course includes a systematic analysis of speech sounds, and the operation of phonetic laws of the Spanish language. It is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: Span 201 or consent of instructor. (F;S)

SPAN 305. Intermediate Spanish Conversation Credit 3(3-0)
This course provides practice in oral Spanish, focusing principally on the real-life contexts of social, commercial, and workplace settings. In addition, practice is provided in discussing topics of current interest, using national and international media as springboards for conversation. The course is conducted in Spanish. It may be taken simultaneously with SPAN 202.Prerequisite: SPAN 201 or consent of instructor. (F;S)

SPAN 306. Latin Culture in the United States Credit 3(3-0)
This course traces the history of Latino influence in the United States, from the arrival of the Spanish in the 1500s to the massive immigration of Latin Americans in the 20th and 21st centuries. It seeks to explain the reasons behind the migration northward, and to show how the Latino presence has changed how we think about race and ethnicity, education and language, labor and capital, religion and politics. The class is conducted in English. (F;S)

SPAN 400. Introduction to Literary Analysis Credit 3(3-0)
This course teaches the basic techniques of literary analysis, as well as the terminology and concepts used in understanding a variety of literary genres. Students will read both Latin American and Peninsular texts. It is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 202 and SPAN 301. (F;S)

SPAN 401. Afro-Hispanic Literature Credit 3(3-0)
The course is designed to provide the student with a general knowledge of Afro-Hispanic literature in its many manifestations throughout Spanish America and the Caribbean. Representative texts will be read within the context of the socio- historic and cultural influences that have shaped the black experience in Spanish America. The course is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 400. (F;S)

SPAN 402. Survey of Latin American Literature I Credit 3(3-0)
This course is an overview of early Latin American literature, beginning with the Pre-Columbian period and ending with the wars of independence. It covers literary texts from several genres and offers a sampling of Latin America’s complex and diverse cultures. The works of canonical and non-canonical writers will be studied through close readings of the texts and the application of literary analysis techniques. It is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 400. (F;S)

SPAN 403. Survey of Latin American Literature II Credit 3(3-0)
This course covers representative texts from a variety of genres. Beginning with the modernista movement and ending at the present day, it examines the Latin American “Boom,” Latino writers in the U.S., and testimonial literature, among others. It is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 400, and SPAN 402 or consent of instructor. (F;S)

SPAN 404. Survey of Spanish Literature I Credit 3(3-0)
This course studies the literature of Spain from the Cid through the Golden Age. It is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 400. (F;S)

SPAN 405. Survey of Spanish Literature II Credit 3(3-0)
A continuation of SPAN 404, this course focuses on the literature of Spain from the seventeenth century to the present. It is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 400. (F;S)

SPAN 406. Special Topics Credit 3(3-0)
Topics to be studied may include linguistics, cinema, and specific literary periods, genres, or figures. It is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 400. (F;S)

SPAN 451. Spanish and Latino Culture Credit 3(3-0)
This course introduces students to the geography, history, literature, arts, and economics of the diverse peoples of Spain and the Americas. The course is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 202 or consent of instructor. (F;S)

SPAN 452. Introduction to Spanish for Business Credit 3(3-0)
This course is designed to enhance the student’s ability to relate to a business environment in an increasingly important commercial language both nationally and internationally. It will introduce the student to the vocabulary and discourse related to business topics and functional areas as well as to the cultural setting of business. These topics will be interwoven with a grammar review taught in a business context. The course will be conducted in Spanish and will include some translating activities. Prerequisite: SPAN 202. (F;S)

SPAN 453. Advanced Spanish for Business Credit 3(3-0)
This course completes SPAN 452, instructing students in more advanced vocabulary and grammar, as well as offering further practice employing Spanish in a business context. The course is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 452. (F;S)

SPAN 454. Introduction to Spanish for Health Care Professionals Credit 3(3-0)
This course is designed to enhance the student’s ability to succeed in a medical environment in which a facility with both English and Spanish is beneficial or required. SPAN 454 introduces students to vocabulary and modes of discourse related to the health care profession, as well as to a variety of health care settings. The course will be conducted in Spanish and will include grammar review and translation activities. Prerequisite: SPAN 202. (F;S)

SPAN 455. Advanced Spanish for Health Care Professionals Credit 3(3-0)
This course completes SPAN 454, instructing students in more advanced vocabulary and grammar, as well as offering further practice employing Spanish in a health care context. It is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 454. (F;S)

SPAN 456. Americanos:  Latino Culture in the United States Credit 3(3-0)
This course studies different topics affecting Hispanic-Americans in the United States, like reasons for emigrating, U.S. immigration policy, assimilation, discrimination, affirmative action, bilingual education, alliance and conflict with African Americans in political and economic arenas, etc. The class will be conducted in Spanish, with an emphasis on discussion and composition. Prerequisite: SPAN 202 or consent of instructor. (F;S)

SPAN 457. Spanish for Law Enforcement Credit 3(3-0)
This course includes vocabulary, commands, and other terminology useful for the student aiming for a Law Enforcement career. Realistic situation (Miranda warning, high-stress circumstances, crime descriptions, finding out what happened) will be included. The class is conducted in Spanish. Prerequisites: SPAN 202 or consent of instructor.

SPAN 490. Independent Study in Foreign Languages Credit 3(3-0)
This course includes independent study and research in a special area of the foreign language. Prerequisite: SPAN 201 or SPAN 305. (F;S)

SPAN 492. Seminar in Foreign Languages Credit 3(3-0)
This course includes discussion of readings and special topics in French and Spanish. Presentations from students, faculty and guest lecturers will supplement the discussion. Papers employing research techniques in literary studies are required of all candidates for a degree with concentrations within the Foreign Languages Department. Prerequisite: SPAN 202 or SPAN 305. (F;S)

GERMAN

FOLA 102. Elementary German I Credit 3(3-0)
The fundamentals of pronunciation and grammar will be studied. Attention is given to prepared and sight translations and vocabulary building. (F;S)

FOLA 103. Elementary German II* Credit 3(3-0)
This course continues the emphasis on grammar, vocabulary building, prepared and sight translations. Maximum attention given to graded readings in German prose and drama. (F;S)

FOLA 202. German Readings in the Natural Social Sciences and Technical Field Credit 3(3-0)
This course includes individualized readings in the natural, social sciences and technical fields for students desirous of developing competency in German. (F;S)

FOLA 204. Introduction to Business German Credit 3(3-0)
This course will introduce students to the German language of everyday business dealings. Emphasis will be placed on those aspects that have an impact on the average citizen such as daily business dealings, social and environmental problems, and the dependence of the population on international trade. Prerequisites: FOLA 102 and 103. (F;S)

FOLA 420. Conversational German Credit 3(3-0)
This course includes intensive practice in everyday German. Prerequisite: German 102, 103, or approval of instructor. (F;S)

FOLA 422. Intermediate German I Credit 3(3-0)
This course is open to students who have completed German 102 and 103. The students read a cross-section of the simpler writings in German literature and German newspapers. (F;S)

FOLA 423. Intermediate German II Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a continuation of FOLA 422. Readings from German literature are included. (F;S)

FOLA 424. Afro-German Studies Credit 3(3-0)
Afro-German Studies will explore and discuss manuscripts either written by or written about Africans living in Germany and manuscripts written about or by Germans living in Africa. The manuscripts will be older and written in the older German script: some of the manuscripts will be current and modern. Prerequisites: FOLA 422 and 423. (F;S)

FOLA 427. Survey of German Literature Credit 3(3-0)
This course provides general introduction to the study of German literature. It is intended to give an overall picture of German literature and an opportunity to read outstanding works not offered in other German courses. (F;S)

RUSSIAN

FOLA 106. Elementary Russian I* Credit 3(3-0)
This is an elementary course for beginners which consists of grammar translation, practice in pronunciation and limited use of the spoken language. (F;S)

FOLA 107. Elementary Russian II* Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a continuation of Elementary Russian 106. Attention is given to more advanced grammar. Reading in Russian is stressed. Prerequisite: FOLA 106. (F;S)

FOLA 310. Literature of American Communism and Soviet Russia Credit 3(3-0)
This course surveys literature of communism from the depression era through present day in the United States and literature of Soviet Russia. Course materials will focus on autobiographies of the period, with an emphasis upon the black experience with communism in both the United States and Soviet Russia. The course is designed to give students a broader cultural understanding of how Americans and Russians view one another. The course is taught in translation. (F;S)

FOLA 311. Technical Russian Credit 3(3-0)
This course is designed to teach basic reading and translation skills as well as vocabulary building, with an emphasis on the sciences/engineering. Course readings will be selected based on enrolled students’ majors. The course is taught in translation. Prerequisites: FOLA 106 and 107. (F;S)

FOLA 322. Intermediate Russian I Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a continuation of basic Russian grammar. There is emphasis on reading, composition, and conversation. Prerequisite: FOLA 107. (F;S)

FOLA 323. Intermediate Russian II Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a continuation of Intermediate Russian I. Students will analyze well-known Russian works in order to develop a competency in Russian. Emphasis will also be placed on conversation and composition. Prerequisite: FOLA 322. (F;S)

JAPANESE

FOLA 108. Elementary Japanese I* Credit 3(3-0)
This is an elementary course for beginners, which consists of practice in pronunciation and usage of the spoken language. This course is designed to offer the basic foundation for the development of listening comprehension and speaking skills, and also provides an introduction into the Japanese culture. (F;S)

FOLA 109. Elementary Japanese II Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a continuation of Elementary Japanese I. The focus will be to examine the elementary Japanese alphabet called Hiragana through reading and writing. Prerequisite: FOLA 108. (F;S)

FOLA 308. Intermediate Japanese I Credit 3(3-0)
This course focuses on development of conversational skills, with practice of reading skills and Japanese characters. Speaking and listening practice will be aided through the usage of videotapes and other media. (F;S)

FOLA 309. Intermediate Japanese II* Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a continuation of FOLA 308. In addition to practice to improve oral proficiency, this course will reinforce reading and writing skills, with emphasis on composition and oral presentation. (F;S)

PORTUGUESE

FOLA 110. Elementary Portuguese I* Credit 3(3-0)
This is a course for beginners, which emphasizes the four skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The course is conducted in Portuguese. (F;S)

FOLA 111. Elementary Portuguese II* Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a continuation of Elementary Portuguese I and introduces students to more advanced grammar. There is emphasis on improving the four skills taught in Elementary Portuguese I. The course is taught in Portuguese. (F;S)

FOLA 314. Intermediate Portuguese I* Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a continuation from Elementary Portuguese II. There is a review of grammar and introduction to more advanced grammar. The course places an emphasis on improving the skills taught in Elementary Portuguese II. The course is taught in Portuguese, and students begin reading essays and short stories in Portuguese. (F;S)

FOLA 315. Intermediate Portuguese II* Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a continuation of Intermediate Portuguese I. There are reviews and completion of Portuguese grammar. The course places an emphasis on improving the four skills of reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Students will also read short stories and essays. The course is conducted in Portuguese. (F;S)

*Students are required to purchase supplemental materials for these courses.

COURSE DESCRIPTIONS IN PHILOSOPHY

PHIL 101. Introduction to Philosophy (formerly PHIL 260)  Credit 3(3-0)
This is an introductory course covering such topics as theories of reality, the nature of mind and knowledge, and the higher values of life. (S)

PHIL 102. Logic (formerly PHIL 262)  Credit 3(3-0)
This is an introductory course designed to give a critical analysis of the principles, problems and fallacies in reasoning. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 103. World Religions (formerly PHIL 265)  Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the teachings and practices of the world’s major religions. This exploration is conducted as a factual approach in which the history, beliefs, philosophy, practices and important figures of each religion are presented. Religions covered include African and Native American oral traditions, Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Shinto, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and new religious movements. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 104. Introduction to Ethics (formerly PHIL 268)  Credit 3(3-0)
This introductory course covers basic ethical theory, its history, and major authors. This course is designed to give students a vocabulary for discussing ethics as well as the skills necessary to articulate and apply normative positions. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 201. Business Ethics (formerly PHIL 315)  Credit 3(3-0)
This course will introduce students to ethical challenges faced in an international business world. Using a case studies approach, students will survey major theories of ethics, examine current ethical practices in business, and learn to formulate, articulate, and defend their own answers to business ethics’ questions. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 261. The Meaning of Life  Credit 3(3-0)
This course will examine two interrelated questions. What is the meaning of life? What makes a particular life meaningful or meaningless? By analyzing literature, philosophical writings, and film, students will participate in a reflective investigation of subjective and objective answers to these questions. (DEMAND)

PHIL 263. Ethics of Good Life and Character Building Credit 3(3-0)
This course explores the role of ethics in achieving a good life. The goal is to encourage students to reflect about their motivations and to contemplate the sort of character they might aspire to build. Questions examined include: What virtues make a person good? To what extent is self-interest compatible with being a virtuous person? What makes life meaningful? Why should we act morally and show concern for others? (F;S;SS)

PHIL 264. Contemporary African American Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course has two objectives. First, it exposes students to the contributions made by African Americans to philosophy. Second, it explores issues of philosophy unique to the African American experience. Readings are drawn from both contemporary and classic sources. Comparisons between African American and African philosophy will be made. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 266. Contemporary Moral Problems Credit 3(3-0)
This course begins with an examination of various ethical theories and then applies these theories to address moral challenges faced by today’s society. Topics include the environment, abortion, treatment of animals, drug use, pornography, hate speech, euthanasia, famine relief, affirmative action and the death penalty. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 267. Philosophy of Love and Friendship Credit 3(3-0)
In this course students will undertake a conceptual analysis of the terms “love” and “friendship”. Questions addressed include: What are the various types of love? Does a person need friends in order to achieve happiness? And what are the minimal requirements of friendship? Students will survey a variety of philosophical and contemporary literature along with examples from film and popular culture to investigate the nature of love and friendship. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 309. Contemporary Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course involves a critical investigation of some contemporary movements in philosophy with special emphasis on existentialism, pragmatism, and positivism. (DEMAND)

PHIL 310. Feminist Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course will introduce students to some of feminist theory's contributions to philosophy. Students will explore various feminist perspectives and analyze the intellectual commitments, world views, and values of each school of thought. Students will then investigate how feminist theory relates to contemporary philosophical issues such as development programs in third world countries, pornography and reproductive. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 311. Philosophy of Punishment Credit 3(3-0)
This course introduces students to philosophical theories of punishment and investigates what types of punishments are morally justified. Issues examined include the normative scope for criminalization, the moral permissibility of capital punishment, the insanity defense, the prosecution of minors as adults and other related issues. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 312. Political Philosophies of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr. Credit 3(3-0)
This course contrasts the philosophies of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr. on race and racism, nonviolence and self-defense, integration and separatism, and Christianity and Islam. Students will be introduced to the political and social culture that shaped the thoughts and worldviews of Malcolm X and Dr. King. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 313 Philosophy of Sports Credit 3(3-0)
This course will consider several philosophical problems in sport: What is sport? What is the value of sports? How should we conduct ourselves when we play sports? Are there sports which are morally wrong? Students will examine ethical and political issues which have arisen in sports including Title IX, gender equity, racism, sexism, drug use, cheating and doping. Prerequisites: None. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 314. Social and Political Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course considers the essential features of various types of government (democracy, monarchy, fascism, etc.) and justifications for the existence of any form of government. Through a historical, thematic and analytic exposition, students will survey the political theories of philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Hegel, Mill, Marx, Rawls, Nozick, Foucault, Althusser, Fanon and Nkrumah. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 316. Environmental Ethics  Credit 3(3-0)
This course is an introduction to the philosophical study and moral assessment of human interaction with other species and the environment in which we live. Students will survey several environmental ethics theories including biocentrism, ecocentrism, deep ecology and social ecology and then apply these ethical tools to address real-world environmental problems. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 317. Medical Ethics Credit 3(3-0)
This course introduces students to ethical challenges arising within the practice of medicine. Topics considered include truth-telling, informed consent, confidentiality, medical futility, euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, gene therapy, social justice in health care, use of animals and humans subjects in medical research, and organ transplantation. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 318. Honors in Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course includes an examination of selected philosophical topics. May be repeated for credit. (S;SS)

PHIL 319. Wabash-Provost Scholars Research Credit 1(1-0)
This course provides student researchers training in collection, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of qualitative and quantitative institutional research data. May be repeated for credit. Course graded as S/U. Prerequisite: Acceptance in Wabash-Provost Scholars Program. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 320. Ethics and Technology Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines ethical issues arising from scientific and technological advancements. After exploring various standards of morality, students analyze issues such as reproductive technologies, cloning, genetic engineering, stem cell research, life-span extension, genetically modified foods, and ethical concerns within nanotechnology. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 322. Death & Dying Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines philosophical questions surrounding human mortality. Topics include what happens after death, immortality, the harm or benefit of death, grief, the act of dying, the good death, and the role technology and ethics play in this inevitable process. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 323. Critical Theories Credit 3(3-0)
This interdisciplinary course explores various ways that critical theorists have envisioned human liberation. Topics include ideology, social justice, economic justice , and political liberation. Cross listed with LIBS 323. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 400. Ancient Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course will examine the history of philosophy from the ancient Greeks t medieval Europeans. Philosophers discussed include the pre-Socratics, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, and Augustine. Topics will range from theories of nature, persons happiness, human knowledge, the good life, and the existence of God. Special focus will be on how each philosopher progressed ideas during this time period, thus setting the stage for modern philosophy. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 401. Modern Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course will examine the history of philosophy from Descartes through Kant. Special focus will be given to the Rationalists (Descartes, Leibniz and Spinoza) and the Empiricists (Locke, Berkeley and Hume). Topics discussed include the possibility of human knowledge, the existence of God, the nature of causation, and the mind-body problem. How the moderns differed from the ancients, the impact the moderns had on the direction of philosophy, and the role women played in this philosophical change will also be explored. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 402. Philosophy of Law Credit 3(3-0)
This course is a philosophical investigation into the nature of law. Students will examine various theories of jurisprudence including natural law, legal positivism, legal naturalism, and legal realism. The course will also consider the relationship between law and morality and between equality and the law. Finally, students will investigate various philosophical problems in criminal and tort law.

PHIL 403. Philosophy of Science Credit 3(3-0)
This course will examine the most basic concepts and principles at work in scientific inquiry. Students will investigate the nature of scientific explanation, consider various scientific theories, theories of truth, and explore the distinction between science, metaphysics, and pseudoscience. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 404. Philosophy, Marxism, and the Africana World Credit 3(3-0)
This course analyzes the main ideas of Marxism and their development in the Africana world. Through an examination of early socialist and late twentieth century thinkers, students will acquire a basic understanding of Marxist theory and a historical understanding of Marxism in Africa and the Africana diaspora. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 405. Philosophy of Religion Credit 3(3-0)
This course examines the origins of the religious impulse, and religious myth and ritual as they have developed in the history of human societies. It considers classical arguments for and against the existence of god(s) and the immortality of the human soul, various views of the nature of god, and the challenge to the religious worldview posed by suffering and “evil”. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 406. Logic for the Legal Profession Credit 3(3-0)
This course focuses on the development of the logical and analytical reasoning skills required in the legal profession. Students will practice argument analysis, identification of assumptions, parallel reasoning, drawing inferences, applying general principles, and recognition of flawed reasoning. The course will be offered for a Pass/Fail grade. Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 408. Law, Humanities & the Social Sciences Credit 3(3-0)
This interdisciplinary topical course examines legal concepts and issues as depicted in the humanities and the social sciences. Topics include freedom and the law, justice and equality, and freedom and responsibility. Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing. Cross listed with LIBS 408. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 409. Science and Religion Credit 3(3-0)
This course explores the relationship between science and religion from an interdisciplinary perspective through readings, films. and case studies. Are scientific and religious ways of knowing compatible, conflictory, or how might these disciplines coexist and influence each other? Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing. Cross listed with LIBS 409. (F;S;SS)

PHIL 441. Media Ethics Credit 3(3-0)
This course applies ethical theory to issues within the media profession. The course begins with an examination of major ethical approaches and decision-making strategies and examines some ethical challenges faced by media professionals. Topics include privacy versus “the right to know”. Accuracy, fairness, exploitation in advertising, deceptive practices, media accountability, conflicts of interest, the public interest versus ratings, and the Digital Millennium Act.

PHIL 492. Seminar in Philosophy Credit 3(3-0)
This course is designed for students to examine special philosophical topics or conduct a senior research project.

DIRECTORY OF FACULTY

José Alberto Bravo de Rueda
Professor
B.A., Pontificia Universidad Católica; M.A., Ph.D., University of Maryland – College Park

Luz Marina Beuchner
Lecturer
B.A. University Leon, Leon-Spain

Temeka Carter
Lecturer
M.A., North Carolina A&T State University; Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Michael Cundall, Jr.
Associate Professor
B.A., University of Kentucky; Ph.D., University of Cincinnati

Maria Daily
Lecturer
M.A., Appalachian State University

Stephen C. Ferguson
Associate Professor
B.A., University of Missouri; M.A., Ph.D., University of Kansas

Galen Foresman
Associate Professor
B.A., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill;  M.A., Ph.D., Bowling Green State University

Wendy C. Hamblet
Professor
B.A., M.A., Brock University; M.A., Ph.D., Penn State University

Karen L. Hornsby
Associate Professor
B.A., California State University-Sacramento; M.A., Ph.D., Bowling Green State University

John F. Humphrey
Associate Professor
B.A., Manchester College; M.A., Ph.D., New School for Social Research

Chinedum Emmanuel Ikegwu
Professor
B.A., University of the District of Columbia; M.A., Antioch School of Law; Ph.D. Howard University

Damion Waymer
Professor
B.A., College of Charleston; M.A., Ph.D., Purdue University

Aaron West
Lecturer
B.A., University of Maryland, Baltimore County, M.A., North Carolina A&T State University